Johnson & Johnson Inc

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How Johnson & Johnson contributes to Deforestation and habitat destruction[1]

Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company, headquartered in New Jersey, USA. The company sells across the USA (51.3%), Asia/Pacific and Africa (18.1%) and Europe (7.6%). It has ~111 manufacturing facilities in: the USA (37); Europe (34); North America (12); Africa and Asia/Pacific (28).[2018] Product sales break down into:

  • 49.9%: Pharmaceutical products: drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases, gastro-intestinal illnesses, immunological, neurological, dermatological diseases, etc;
  • 33.1%: Medical products and equipment: diagnostic systems, orthopedic and gynaecological equipment, surgical materials, etc. for use by healthcare professionals;
  • 17%: Products for use by the general public: OTC drugs, ophthalmological products (Acuvue soft contact lenses), nutritional products, personal care products (RoC, Neutrogena brands), feminine hygiene and baby care products, etc.

Tax Policy: To put as much as possible in tax havens.[2] 20

Corporate Support of Climate Policy: InfluenceMap  A[3]
Johnson & Johnson appears to have a limited but positive engagement with climate change regulation. However, it is a member of the Business Roundtable, CEFIC and the US Chamber of Commerce, all of which negatively impact climate regulation in the USA and Europe. IM Report

Brands

ToDo: link, link

Company

Shareholders

Total float: 84.3%
Source: MarketScreener.svg, Mar.2020

Structure (UK)

Reports, Investors Johnson & Johnson Inc, OC

  • OMJ Pharmaceuticals Inc (USA), immediate parent, OC
    • Ethicon Ireland Unlimited Company; transferred its shares in J&JSWC to OMJ in 2017
      • Johnson & Johnson Swiss Finance Company Ltd, grants loans to, and holds investments in, group companies. Paid dividend of $16.62bn in Feb.2018; and $23m in Jun.2018. CH
        • Johnson & Johnson Surgical Vision Inc (USA) (formerly AMO US Holdings Inc)
        • Actelion US Holding Company (USA)

  • Diabetes Diagnostics Inc (USA), OC
    • LifeScan Scotland Ltd, development and manufacture of advanced blood fglucose monitoring products used by diabetics. CH

  • Cilag Holding AG (Switzerland), OC
    • McNeil Products Ltd, intermediate group holding company. CH
      • McNeil Healthcare (UK) Ltd, developing, marketing, distribution and sale of non-prescription consumer healthcare products. CH

Subsidiaries (Dec.2017), Form 10-K.


  • Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
    • JC General Services CVBA (Belgium). Administers In-House Treasury Cash Pool arrangements. Enables participants to have access to a broad range of credit options at arm's length. About Janssen
    • Janssen Pharmaceutica NV (Norway), OC
    • Janssen Infectious Diseases-Diagnostics BVBA, provides research and development services for the discovery of drugs for infectious diseases. Bloomberg
    • Janssen-Cilag NV (Belgium), develops and markets pharmaceutical products and services. Bloomberg

Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc, acquired X01 from Ventures Live IV (Jersey) LP, Mar.2015,https://opencorporates.com/companies/us_pa/681308

  • X01 Ltd, pharmaceutical research and development, CH

  • JJHC LLC, immediate parent co., 100%
    • Janssen-Cilag Ltd, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical products. CH
    • Johnson & Johnson Management Ltd, https://beta.companieshouse.gov.uk/company/00203555/, PSC = Johnson & Johnson (USA). Principal activity = holding co. for Johnson & Johnson group companies principally within the UK. 2016/7: 716,000 loss; paid interim dividends of 45 millon. 2015/6: 1.4m loss; paid 50.7m dividends. Subsidiaries held 100% unless otherwise indicated
      • Johnson & Johnson Ltd, acts as a sales agents for fellow group companies, receiving commission therefor. CH
      • Johnson & Johnson Innovation Ltd, (a) holding + management of land and buildings occupied mainly by members of the J&J group; (b) identifying innovation at academic institutions, start-ups and venture capital firms; to evaluate and onboard new science for J&J group. CH
      • Johnson & Johnson Finance Ltd, provides finance for the sale and purchase of medical and other equipment and cars. CH
      • Johnson & Johnson Consumer Services EAME Ltd, acts as a service provider to toher J&J group companies. CH
      • Johnson & Johnson UK Treasury Company Ltd, provides financial and treasury services to other group companies. CH
      • Mentor Biopolymers Ltd (wound up Jul.2016), CH
      • Synthes Ltd (wound up Mar.2016), CH
      • Johnson & Johnson Medical Ltd, sale and manufacture of healthcare products, CH
        • DePuy International Ltd, CH
  • Johnson & Johnson Sdn Bhd (Malaysia), OC
  • Johnson & Johnson (Ireland) Ltd (Ireland), OC
  • Johnson & Johnson Group Holdings GmbH (Austria), Bloomberg

Johnson & Johnson

  • DePuy Orthopaedics Inc (USA)
    • Anspach Europe Ltd, product quality support, CH

JJHC LLC

    • Janssen Cilag Ltd, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical products, CH

JHC LLC J&J Pension Trustees Ltd (dormant), CH


  • Janssen Biotech Inc, OC
    • Respivert Ltd, pharmaceutical drug research and development,

Acq'd XO1 Ltd in Nov.2017 JnJ About

  • Depuy Ireland Unlimited, mnf of knee and hip replacement joints. OC
    • Finsbury Orthopaedics Ltd, holding co. for UK companies. CH
      • Finsbury Orthopaedics International Ltd, wholesale of orthopaedic products.

  • JJHC LLC, OC
    • Janssen-Cilag Ltd, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical products. PSC changed from Actelion Ltd Nov.2017, CH
      • Actelion Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd, CH

  • Actelion Ltd (Switzerland),
    • Actelion Registration Ltd, CH

Johnson & Johnson Medical Devices Companies = ASP + Biosense Webster, Cerenovus, DePuy Synthes, Ethicon, Mentor, website, https://www.jnjmedicaldevices.com/en-GB/links

Timelines

  • Aug.2020:
    Momenta-Pharmaceuticals-2020.svgDeals-Arrow-Left.svg
    Momenta Pharmaceuticals Inc: a definitive agreement to acquire the USA biotechnology company was entered into.[4] The deal gave J&J’s Janssen unit access to Momenta’s experimental therapy, nipocalimab, being tested for myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that causes weakness in muscles, and other diseases where the immune system attacks the body.[5] Momenta was founded in 2001 based on technology discovered and developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for the precise sequencing of complex sugar molecules. It went public in Jun.2004 on NASDAQ.[6] MomentaPharma.com
  • 2017: sold COMPEED, (jnj report, p.25)
  • Acquired Actelion, (jnj report p.25) and AMO (p.26)
  • Mar.2018: Johnson & Johnson announced that it had received a binding offer from Platinum Equity, a private investment firm, to acquire its LifeScan business for ~$2.1bn. ref
  • June 2017, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd became part of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson.
  • 2017: acquisitions primarily included: Actelion Ltd an established leading franchise of differentiated, innovative products for pulmonary arterial hypertension; Abbott Medical Optics, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Abbott Laboratories, which included ophthalmic products related to: cataract surgery, laser refractive surgery and consumer eye health; Neuravi Ltd, a privately-held medical device company that develops and markets medical devices for neurointerventional therapy; TearScience Inc, a manufacturer of products dedicated to treating meibomian gland dysfunction; Sightbox Inc, a privately-held company that developed a subscription vision care service that connects consumers with eye care professionals and a supply of contact lenses; Torax Medical Inc, a privately-held medical device company that manufactures and markets the LINXTM Reflux Management System for the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and Megadyne Medical Products Inc, a privately-held medical device company that develops, manufactures and markets electrosurgical tools. (jnj report, p.71)
  • ?date?: Johnson & Johnson Diabetes Care Companies, specifically LifeScan Inc, Animas Corporation, and Calibra Medical Inc. (p.74)
  • 2017: company divestitures primarily included: the Codman Neurosurgery business, to Integra LifeSciences Holdings Corporation and the divestiture of COMPEED® to HRA Pharma.
  • Apr.2016 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc announced that it had entered into a definitive agreement to acquire NeoStrata Company Inc, a dermocosmetics company. The acquisition included NeoStrata's affiliates and privately-held parent company TriStrata Incorporated. ref
  • 2016: acquisitions primarily included: Vogue International LLC, a privately-held company focused on the marketing, development and distribution of salon-influenced and nature-inspired hair care and other personal products; NeuWave Medical Inc, a privately-held medical device company that manufactures and markets minimally invasive soft tissue microwave ablation systems; NeoStrata Company Inc, a leader in dermocosmetics, and the global rights for the commercialization of RHINOCORT allergy spray outside the USA. (p.73)
  • 2016: company divestitures included: the controlled substance raw material and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) business; certain anesthetic products in Europe; and certain non-strategic Consumer brands.
  • 2015: acquisitions primarily included: XO1 Ltd, a privately-held biopharmaceutical company developing an anti-thrombin antibody, and Novira Therapeutics Inc, a privately-held clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing innovative therapies for curative treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (p.73)
  • 2015: company divestitures included: the Cordis business to Cardinal Health; the SPLENDA brand to Heartland Food Products Group; and the USA license rights to NUCYNTA® (tapentadol), NUCYNTA® ER (tapentadol extended-release tablets), and NUCYNTA (tapentadol) oral solution.
  • Jun.2012: Synthes Holding AG (Switzerland,OpenCorporates-sm.svg was acquired. Johnson & Johnson's DePuy companies joined with the Synthes Group to create the DePuy Synthes companies of Johnson & Johnson. (CH 2017 report, p.2)
  • 2012: the company completed the acquisition of Synthes Inc.
  • 2011: Johnson & Johnson and Synthes merged to create a comprehensive portfolio of orthopaedic products and services for joint reconstruction, trauma, spine, sports medicine and cranio-maxillofacial therapies - the DePuy Synthes Companies
  • Jan.2009: Mentor was acquired by Johnson & Johnson
  • 2006 LUBRIDERM lotion became part of the family of Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products Company Division of Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies Inc. ref
  • 2006 Johnson & Johnson acquired ROGAINE ref
  • 1998: DePuy, the oldest manufacturer of orthopaedic implants in the United States, was acquired by Johnson & Johnson.
  • 1986: Johnson & Johnson acquired LifeScan Mnf of OneTouch = LifeScan Inc = division of Cilag GmbH International (Switzerland), http://www.lifescan.com, https://www.onetouch.com/
  • Oct.1961: NV Laboratoria Pharmaceutica C Janssen, based in Belgium, was acquired by Johnson & Johnson. Renamed as "Janssen Pharmaceutica NV", it became part of Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development. Janssen PharmaceuticaWikipedia-W.svg

Legal Suits

See jnj report, p.75 (loads of them)

Tax Policy

Oxfam, UK, Oxfam, USA

  • Oxfam research shows that 4 pharmaceutical corporations — Abbott, Johnson & Johnson, Merck, and Pfizer — systematically stash their profits in overseas tax havens. They deprive developing countries of $112+m every year, while vastly overcharging for their products. These corporations deploy massive influencing operations to rig the rules in their favour and give their damaging behavior a veneer of legitimacy. Tax dodging, high prices, and influence peddling by drug companies exacerbate the yawning gap between rich and poor, between men and women, and between advanced economies and developing ones.[2]
  • In 4 countries that charge low or no corporate tax rates, these companies posted 31% profit margins - but in developing and advanced countries, reported profits were between 5-7%. (p.4)
  • The corporations may have avoided even more in taxes in advanced economies with larger markets, a total of ~$3.7bn annually — equivalent to 66% of the $5bn they actually paid. Johnson & Johnson led the pack with an estimated $1.7bn underpaid annually. Pfizer may have underpaid by $1.1bn, Merck $739 mn, and Abbott $169m. (p.9)
  • Pharmaceutical corporations spend the most of any industry on influencing the US govt, $200+m annually. They employ the most lobbyists and donate $millions to campaigns. They are also adept at placing their own people in powerful govt posts. Pfizer is consistently a top lobby spender, ranking 2nd in 2017 at $10.4m. Johnson & Johnson ($6.9m) and Merck ($6.2m) ranked sixth and seventh, respectively, while Abbott ($4.2m) ranked 13th. (pp.10, 11)
    • The revolving door also exists between European Commission departments dealing with medicines and trade policies and consultancy firms that advise pharmaceutical companies, even though the EC has a 2-year ‘cooling off period’. Senior members of the European Medicine Agency dealing with critical medicines issues such as transparency of clinical trials had previously held senior positions in pharmaceutical companies. Some who left the EC have joined or set up consultancy firms that advise pharmaceutical companies on EC regulatory issues. The doors have been revolving also with UK government staff working on intellectual property issues and subsequently moving to high positions in an industry association or to providing consultancy services to pharmaceutical companies. (p.16 UK report)
    • Pharmaceutical companies lobby in Brussels for stricter intellectual property rules in free trade agreements (FTAs), thus increasing companies’ monopoly power and ability to raise the price of medicines. They also lobby for other provisions that allow pharmaceutical companies to sue EU govts over measures for access to medicines such as price control.66 A study of lobbying at the EU estimated that pharmaceutical companies spent €40m (about £33m in 2012) annually and had 220 lobbyists active in Brussels. (UK report)
  • Pharmaceutical corporations have also used their influence to get the US govt to pressure developing countries on their behalf. The threat of US sanctions will often suffice to convince finance and trade ministers to overrule attempts by health officials to make medicines affordable or by tax officials to rein in pharma’s tax dodging. (p.11)
  • Grassroots campaigns: “patients’ rights” organizations often turn out to be funded by the corporations. Twelve major pharmaceutical companies, including Abbott, Johnson & Johnson, Merck, and Pfizer, fund 65+ such groups in Latin America, as well as their umbrella, the International Alliance of Patients’ Organizations.
  • The current system for biomedical research and development, a cornerstone of these corporations’ business model, is based on monopoly protection secured by intellectual property rules as pharmaceutical companies invest in development of products that can produce the highest profit. The IP-based system of R&D has failed to produce many medicines needed for public health. For example, there has been no new class of antibiotics developed since 1987 despite the rising problem of antimicrobial resistance. Big drug companies spend more on whopping payouts to shareholders and executives than on research and development. p.12
  • The cost of medicines has continued to rise dramatically, with 7 of the 9 best-selling drugs sold by Pfizer, Merck, and Johnson & Johnson seeing double-digit price increases in 2017. Such outrageous prices break public health budgets and place the burden of paying on sick people and their families. (p.12)
  • While Pfizer hiked the price of dozens of drugs, the total compensation of Pfizer’s CEO leaped up by 61% in 2017 to $26.2m. That year Johnson & Johnson’s CEO earned $22.8m, Merck’s earned $17.1m, and Abbott’s earned $15.6m.. The average compensation for a drug company CEO in 2015 was $18.5m, 71% greater than the median earned by executives in all industries. (p.12)
  • The companies’ R&D spending is also smaller than the $billions they spend on marketing. In 2013, Johnson & Johnson spent more than twice as much on sales and marketing than on R&D ($17.5bn vs. $8.2bn). Pfizer nearly did as well ($11.4bn vs. $6.6bn), and Merck spent 20% more ($9.5bn vs. $7.5bn). These marketing costs are also tax deductible.
  • The reality is that the taxpayer-funded National Institutes of Health in the USA is by far the largest investor in health research, with European govts providing substantial funding, as well. All 210 drugs approved in the USA between 2010 2016 benefited from publicly-funded research, either directly or indirectly. The source for these public investments, of course, taxes. Patients thus often pay twice for medicines: through their tax dollars and at the pharmacy — or three times if we count the extra tax dollars we pay because the companies don’t.
  • Because US taxes on overseas profits only became due when they were ‘repatriated’, ie. paid out as dividends to the parent company in the USA, corporations kept vast sums offshore. Pfizer managed to report no taxable US income every year between 2007 and 2016, despite worldwide profits of $110bn (£86bn).
  • By the end of 2017, US Fortune 500 companies were holding almost $2.6 rn (~£2 trn) in untaxed earnings offshore. A year earlier, the portion held by the four largest USA pharmaceutical companies was $352bn (£272bn). Pfizer’s $199bn (£156bn) held offshore was the 2nd largest of any USA corporation.
  • Abbott, Merck and Pfizer seem to have significant subsidiaries in the UK's tax havens such as Bermuda (0% tax rate), the Cayman Islands, the British Virgin Islands and the Channel Islands. It is welcome that legislation recently passed in the UK requiring the UK’s Overseas Territories to implement public registers of beneficial ownership will change this. The change corresponds to new EU law which requires all member states to have public registers of beneficial ownership for companies.
Sources: “Offshore Shell Games 2017”, Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, Oct.17.2017; “The Missing Profits of Nations”, Thomas Tørsløv, Ludvig Wier, Gabriel Zucman, VoxEU.org/CEPR Policy Portal, Jul.23.2018; dangerous-global-race-to-the-bottom-on-corporate-tax-620159 Tax Battles: The dangerous global race to the bottom on corporate tax, E Berkhout (2016) , Oxfam.

What are these "institutes" about? DePuy Synthes

Three business segments

  • Products: https://www.jnj.com/healthcare-products
  • http://www.investor.jnj.com/_document/2017-annual-report?id=00000162-2469-d298-ad7a-657fef1c0000
  • Consumer: broad range of products used in the baby care, oral care, beauty, over-the-counter pharmaceutical, women’s health and wound care markets. https://www.jnj.com/healthcare-products/consumer, https://www.jnj.com/healthcare-products/consumer (Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies Inc)
  • Pharmaceutical: link The Pharmaceutical segment is focused on 6 therapeutic areas. Medicines in this segment are distributed directly to retailers, wholesalers, hospitals and health care professionals for prescription use. Many of these medicines were developed in collaboration with strategic partners or are licensed from other companies and maintain active lifecycle development programs. See also p.19+20. "Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson". link
    • Immunology (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis). REMICADE® (infliximab), a treatment for a number of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases; SIMPONI® (golimumab), a subcutaneous treatment for adults with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, active psoriatic arthritis, active ankylosing spondylitis and moderately active to severely active ulcerative colitis; SIMPONI ARIA® (golimumab), an intravenous treatment for adults with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis; STELARA® (ustekinumab), a treatment for adults with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis and active psoriatic arthritis, and for adults with moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease. Janssen
    • Infectious Diseases and Vaccines (e.g., HIV/AIDS). EDURANT® (rilpivirine) and PREZISTA® (darunavir) and PREZCOBIX® /REZOLSTA® (darunavir/cobicistat), antiretroviral medicines for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in combination with other antiretroviral products. Janssen
    • Neuroscience (e.g., mood disorders and schizophrenia). CONCERTA® (methylphenidate HCl) extended-release tablets CII, a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; INVEGA SUSTENNA® /XEPLION® (paliperidone palmitate), for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in adults; INVEGA TRINZA® /TREVICTA® (paliperidone palmitate), for the treatment of schizophrenia in patients after they have been adequately treated with INVEGA SUSTENNA® for at least four months; RISPERDAL CONSTA® (risperidone long-acting injection), for the treatment of schizophrenia and the maintenance treatment of Bipolar 1 Disorder in adults. Janssen
    • Oncology (e.g., prostate cancer and hematologic malignancies). VELCADE® (bortezomib), a treatment for multiple myeloma and for use in combination with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisone for the treatment of adult patients with previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma; ZYTIGA® (abiraterone acetate), used in combination with prednisone as a treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; IMBRUVICA® (ibrutinib), an oral, once-daily therapy approved for use in treating certain B-cell malignancies, or blood cancers, and Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia; DARZALEX® (daratumumab), for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma; PROCRIT®/ EPREX®, to stimulate red blood cell production. Janssen
    • Cardiovascular and Metabolism (e.g., thrombosis and diabetes).XARELTO® (rivaroxaban), an oral anticoagulant for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery, to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and for the treatment and reduction of risk of recurrence of DVT and PE; INVOKANA® (canagliflozin), for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes; INVOKAMET® /VOKANAMET® (canagliflozin/metformin HCl), a combination therapy of fixed doses of canagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes; and INVOKAMET® XR (canagliflozin/metformin hydrochloride extended-release), a once-daily, fixed-dose combination therapy of canagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride extended-release, for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes; OPSUMIT® (macitentan) as monotherapy or in combination, indicated for the long-term treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); UPTRAVI® (selexipag), the only approved oral, selective IP receptor agonist targeting a prostacyclin pathway in PAH. Janssen
    • Pulmonary Hypertension (e.g., Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension), a new therapeutic area, which was established with the acquisition of Actelion in June 2017. Actelion
  • Medical Devices: includes a broad range of products used in the orthopaedic, surgery, cardiovascular, diabetes care and eye health fields. These products are distributed to wholesalers, hospitals and retailers, and used principally in the professional fields by physicians, nurses, hospitals, eye care professionals and clinics. JNJ site > Johnson & Johnson Medical Devices Companies (JJMDC)
    • Orthopaedic products. The global orthopaedics business of DePuy Synthes is composed of Joint Reconstruction, Trauma, Spine, Sports Medicine and Power Tools. DePuy Synthes, Codman Neuro
    • General Surgery, biosurgical, endomechanical and energy products. Ethicon]
    • Electrophysiology products to treat cardiovascular disease. Biosense Webster Website
    • Sterilization and disinfection products to reduce surgical infection. Advanced Sterilization Products (ASP)
    • Diabetes care products, such as blood glucose monitoring. OneTouch
    • Vision care products such as disposable contact lenses and ophthalmic products related to cataract and laser refractive surgery. Johnson & Johnson Vision
    • Ear, Nose and Throat. Acclarent
    • Breast Aesthetics. Mentor Worldwide
    • Neurovascular and Stroke - CERENOVUS (no link)

- See also "Johnson & Johnson Innovation": JJDC, Inc. the strategic venture arm, https://www.jnjinnovation.com/jjdc

Articles

/Documents/2017.12-InfluenceMap-Trade-Association-Report.pdf

  • Dec.15.2018: Talc giant ‘failed to disclose asbestos risk’. Johnson & Johnson failed to tell regulators and the public that its baby powder sometimes tested positive for small amounts of asbestos, Reuters reported yesterday. Johnson & Johnson, a $350bn consumer goods and healthcare company, is the subject of litigation over its talc products in the US, involving about 11,700 claimants. In July, Johnson & Johnson was told to pay almost $4.7bn to 22 women who claimed that they developed ovarian cancer by using the powder. Six of the claimants died. James Dean, The Times.

References

  1. ^ The Final Countdown: Now or never to reform the palm oil industry. A Greenpeace investigation has exposed how the world’s biggest brands are still linked to rainforest destruction. Greenpeace International, Sept.19.2018. See also UK brands will fail palm oil promise.
  2. ^ a b Prescription for Poverty: Drug companies as tax dodgers, price gougers, and influence peddlers. Mark Fried, Oxfam International, Sept.2018.
  3. ^ The A-List of Climate Policy Engagement. Which global companies lead in strategic lobbying for the ambitions of Paris? Rankings measure how a corporation or trade association behaves towards 2°C aligned climate and energy policy. Influence Map, Apr.2018.
  4. ^ Momenta Enters Definitive Agreement with Johnson & Johnson. Press Release, , Aug.19.2020.
  5. ^ J&J strikes $6.5 billion deal for autoimmune disease specialist Momenta. Manas Mishra, Reuters, Aug.19.2020.
  6. ^ About: Our Legacy. Momenta Pharmaceuticals Inc. Accessed Aug.18.2020.