PepsiCo Inc

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PepsiCo is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation, headquartered in New York. PepsiCo has interests in the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products.

Climate Policy Rating:[1] InfluenceMap  C
PepsiCo appear to have fairly limited but largely positive engagement with climate change legislation. However, in 2013 they supported the exploitation of the Albertan Tar Sands. PepsiCo is also a member of the Business Roundtable and the US Chamber of Commerce, which lobby against climate legislation.

Top 10 Plastic Polluters:[2] #BreakFreeFromPlastic

Corporate Political Engagement Rating:[3] Transparency International    B  

Tax Policy

20 PepsiCo maintains 133 subsidiaries in offshore tax havens, holding $44.9bn offshore for tax purposes.ref

Brands

ToDo: link, link, Potted history, Our History, Logo History 1, Logo History 2, Acquisitions

Pepsi

Frito-Lay Inc

ToDo: Frito-LayWikipedia-W.svg, http://fritolay.com/, website, brands, Mini-History, Mini-Timeline, Brands, Snacks

The primary snack food brands and products include Fritos corn chips, Cheetos cheese-flavored snacks, Doritos and Tostitos tortilla chips, Lay's potato chips, Ruffles chips, Sun chips, and Walker's potato crisps (distributed in the UK and Ireland under the Walker's brand, and in the rest of Europe under the Lay's brand). Frito-Lay has multiple other non-chip brands, including Rold Gold pretzels, Cracker Jack popcorn snacks, TrueNorth nut clusters and nut crisps, Grandma's Cookies, FunYuns onion-flavoured rings, Nut Harvest Munchies, El Isleno plantain chips, Chester's corn and potato chips, Baken-ets fried pork skins.

Walkers Snacks Ltd

Walkers is the UK's leading manufacturer of crisps. Every day about 11m people bite into one of the company's products. Key brands include Quavers, Monster Munch, Dippas, Wotsits, and Sensations. ref Walkers on Sustainability: "We're trying. Honest." Walkers on Recycling: "We're trying. Honest." ref
Walkers Crisps produces 7,000+ non-recyclable crisp packets every minute, of every day, of every week, of ... etc. 38 Degrees

Tropicana Products Inc

Tropicana is the world's leading producer of chilled orange juice, and distributes its products in 23 countries. North American brands include Tropicana Pure Premium, Tropicana Season's Best, Dole juices, and Tropicana Twister. International brands include Tropicana Pure Premium, Dole juices, Fruvita, Hitchcock, Looza, and Copella. Website
Timeline
Aug.1998Seagram's wanted to expand into the entertainment industry, and struck a deal with PepsiCo.
Mar.1988Kohlberg Kravis Roberts sold Tropicana to Seagram'sWikipedia-W.svg, a Canadian alcoholic beverage maker.
Apr.1986Beatrice Foods was bought by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, and asset-stripped to reduce debt.
Aug.1978Rossi, now 77 yrs old, sold Tropicana to the Beatrice Foods Company, and retired.
Mid‑1970sThe Orange Juice Wars with Coca-Cola's Minute Maid frozen concentrate began; they continue to this day.
1970Rossi pioneered orange juice transport via train from Florida to New York. A mile-long Tropicana Juice Train, carrying 3,800,000 litres of juice with one weekly round-trip from Florida to Kearny, New Jersey. Shortly thereafter, additional weekly trips were required to meet growing demand.
1969Topicana went public.
1954Rossi invented and patented flash pasteurisation to aseptically pack pure chilled juice in glass bottles, allowing it to be stored and shipped without refrigeration for up to 3 months. By 1957, the S.S. Tropicana was shipping juice from Florida to New York every week, carrying 1.5m gallons weekly at its peak use.
1947Anthony Rossi, an Italian immigrant, bought a small orange-juice company in Florida. He delivered fresh orange by hand to nearby homes.
Sources: Tropicana Products, Inc. History. Funding Universe.

Quaker Oats Company

Quaker Oats is an American food conglomerate, headquartered in Chicago. It has been owned by PepsiCo since 2001. US Website.us, Website.uk
Major brands include: Quaker Oats, Aunt Jemina, Gatorade, Scotts Porage Oats.
Timeline
Sept.2018 Larry: as part of an effort position Quaker as a brand for healthy products, Larry was redesigned again, with slightly fluffier hair and his cravat blowing in a breeze.ref
Mar.2012 Larry: the Quaker Oats man dieted and had a facelift, to present a younger, healthier look.[4]
2006 Sugar Puffs was sold to Honey Monster Foods Ltd, based in Leicester.[5]
Aug.2001 PepsiCo acquired Quaker Oats, primarily because its Gatorade non-carbonated soft drink brand provided an entry into the sports beverage market; and Quaker's cereal and snack food division complemented the existing Frito-Lay salty-snacks division. The merger created the 4th-largest consumer goods company in the world.
1998 Ardmore Farms was sold to Country Pure FoodsWikipedia-W.svg.[6]
Mar.1997 Snapple Beverage Corporation was sold to Triarc Companies Inc.[7]
Jul.1996 Frozen Foods: Quaker spun off its frozen food business, selling it to Aurora Foods Inc, along with a license to use the "Aunt Jemima" brand for frozen breakfast food products.
1995 Van Camp's was sold to Conagra Brands Inc.
Nov.1994 Snapple Beverage Corporation was acquired from leveraged buyout private equity firm Thomas H Lee Partners LP.ref
1991 Fisher-Price: following a disastrous foray into products for older children, the company was spun off as an independent.[8][9] Freedom was short; the company was acquired by Mattel in Nov.1993.
1989 Aunt Jemima: Olivia Hunter, Anna Short-Harrington's youngest daughter, became the modern face of "Aunt Jemima".[10] The remodelling took place after activists threw Quaker Oats into Lake Michigan and threatened boycotts in protest.[11]
1985 Stokeley: Quaker Oats sold off the Stokely brand to Seneca Foods Corporation.
1983 Gatorade: acquired Stokely-Van Camp Inc, makers of Gatorade and Van Camp's.
1982 Ardmore Farms, a Florida-based orange juice plant, was acquired.
Jul.1982 Scott's Porage Oats: A&R Scott, maker of Scott's Porage Oats, was acquired from Premier Foods plc § Rank Hovis McDougall.[12]
Apr.1982 US Games Corporation: trading under the brand Vidtek, the company was acquired by Quaker Oats to develop games for the Atari 2600, in the hope of bolstering up the flagging Fisher-Price division.[13] Partly due to market saturation (see Video game crash of 1983Wikipedia-W.svg), and partly due to inexperience on the part of Quaker Oats, the company went out of business in Sept.1983.[14][15]
1970sWilly Wonka & the Chocolate Factory: Quaker Oats financed the making of the film; in return, they obtained a license to use some of the product names mentioned in the movie for candy bars.
1969 Fisher-Price, the toy company, was acquired 2 years after its co-founder Herman Fisher retired.[16][17]
1966Aunt Jemima syrup was introduced.
1957 Sugar Puffs, a honey-flavoured breakfast cereal made from sugar-coated wheat, was launched.
1957 Larry: The Quaker Oats man came out in full colour, courtesy of Harold Sundblond. (In 1946, graphic designer Jim Nash had created the "smiling head" portrait in black and white.)[18][19]
Apr.1937Quaker’s first registration of the Aunt Jemima trademark.
1935 Aunt Jemima: Anna Short-Harrington became the face of "Aunt Jemima".[10]
1925 Aunt Jemima Mills Company acquired; the deal was completed the following year.[20][21]
1920s Quaker Quick Oats introduced, one of the early convenience foods.[22]
1915 The iconic round Quaker Oats tin made its first appearance.
Mar.1914Anti-Trust Suit: Quaker Oats and the Great Western Cereal Company defended an anti-trust suit brought by the US Govt for "conspiring to monopolise the oatmeal business of the country", which sought to dissolve the company.[23]
1911 Great Western Cereal Company was acquired for its famous "Mother's Oats" brand,[24] which later allowed Quaker to enter into the natural foods market with the introduction of Mother's Oat Bran in 1982. Great Western Cereals was the independents' answer to the American Cereal Company (see 1888), and was formed in Mar.1901 by 10 of the largest cereal concerns of the Northwest to directly compete with it.[25][26] Great Western Cereals came to a very sticky end in 1920.[27][28]
1901The Quaker Oats Company Inc was formed by the consolidation of Schumacher’s German Mills American Oatmeal Company, Stuart’s North Star Oatmeal Mills in Iowa, Crowell’s Quaker Mill Company in Ravenna, and a 4th, the Rob Lewis & Co. American Oats and Barley Oatmeal Corporation. The new company became parent to the American Cereal Company.[29][15]
1888The American Cereal Company was formed when 7 of the largest oatmeal mills in the country united. Competition in the industry was fierce, with the opposition doing everything they could to destroy any threat. Schumacher was president, with Crowell as vice-president. American Cereal's concentration gave it the strength to survive the depression of the 1890s, which saw the demise of many firms.[29][15]
1886Crowell pioneered the retail sale of cereals in packages.[30]
1882Crowell launched a national advertising campaign for Quaker Oats, cleverly introducing a 2lb paper package with printed cooking directions. Competitors' packaging methods were in the not-so-handy 180 lb barrels.[30]
1881The Quaker Mill Company was bought by Henry Parsons Crowell; the trademark came with the purchase.[31]
Sept.1877 "Larry", the Quaker Oats man, made his debut when Henry D Seymour (Quaker Mill Company) trademarked the Quaker brand, which emphasised the purity of the product - not something late 19th century consumers could take for granted.[18][19]
1877The Quaker Mill Company was founded by Henry D Seymour and William Heston in Ravenna, Ohio.
1873The North Star Oatmeal Mills was opened in Iowa by Robert Stuart.
1856The German Mills American Oatmeal Company was established by Ferdinand Schumacher in Ohio.[32]

See also History of Quaker OatsWikipedia-W.svg, Quaker Oats CompanyWikipedia-W.svg, Scott's Porage OatsWikipedia-W.svg

ToDo: link

Aunt Jemima

Aunt Jemima is a brand of pancake mixes, pancake syrups, corn meal mixes, and other breakfast foods.
Pinnacle Foods Inc uses the "Aunt Jemima" brand for its frozen breakfast food products in the USA, under license from Quaker Oats.

Timeline
1925Quaker Oats Company acquired the Aunt Jemima Mills Company when the Davis Milling Company ran into financial problems.[33]
1913Marketing Machine: The Davis Milling Company's marketing plan was brilliant: they delivered their customers something they had always wanted but could never have: a "real life Mammy". Along with the pancake mix, pamphlets were given out telling Aunt Jemima’s "life story" fable: she had been the house slave of Colonel Higbee, whose plantation was known across the South for its delicious pancakes. After the Civil War the Davis Milling Company, who had heard of the pancakes, paid Aunt Jemima in gold to share her secret recipe with them.[11] The feel-good story wasn't selling pancakes; it was selling The Mammy fantasy - having slaves, the ultimate labour-saving device, was the main attraction of the Aunt Jemima brand. Kimberly Wallace-Sanders: "Aunt Jemima's success was predicated upon a fascinating interweaving of commerce, memory, and racial nostalgia that served as a vehicle for post-Civil War national consolidation".[34]
1894‑1912Aunt Jemima Mills Company: After the Chicago Expo, Nancy Green traveled on promotional tours across the country. By 1910, more than 120m Aunt Jemima breakfasts were being served annually, roughly equal to the population of the country. Green as Aunt Jemima was so successful that in 1914 the company renamed itself the "Aunt Jemima Mills Company".[11][35]
1893Aunt Jemima Promotion: Nancy Green first appeared to the public at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, presenting the Davis Milling Company’s pancake mix. Nancy Green was a hit; she charmed crowds, and cooked thousands of pancakes from a booth. Her exhibition drew so many people that special policemen were assigned to keep the crowds moving. The Davis Milling Company received over 50,000 orders, and Fair officials awarded Nancy Green a medal and certificate for her showmanship.[33] The Davis Milling Company signed Green to a lifetime contract. [35][36]
1890 Randolph Truett Davis Milling Company purchased the struggling Aunt Jemima Manufacturing Company, and began looking for a black woman to employ as a living trademark for his product; he found Nancy Green, a former slave, working as a domestic in Chicago.[33][37][38][39] See also Nancy GreenWikipedia-W.svg.
1888‑1889Aunt Jemima Manufacturing Company: Two friends, Chris L Rutt and Charles G Underwood, bought a flour mill, the Pearl Milling Company. However, the flour market at the time was glutted, so they sold their excess flour as a ready-made pancake mix in white paper sacks, branded with an older, matronly black woman in an apron and kerchief - the first "Aunt Jemima", who debuted in Nov.1889. The company was renamed the "Aunt Jemima Manufacturing Company".[40][35]
Sources: Our History

Gatorade Company Inc

Gatorade is an American brand of sports-themed beverage and food products, centred around the concept of "sports drinks".
Gatorade's Thirst Quencher is manufactured by PepsiCo from water, sugar, salt, monopotassium phosphateWikipedia-W.svg (also used in fertilisers and fungicides), plus colouring and flavouring additives. It is distributed in 80+ countries.ref website

Timeline
  • GatoradeWikipedia-W.svg, http://gatorade.com/
  • 1983: The Quaker Oats Company purchased Stokely-Van Camp Inc for its Gatorade product.
  • 1969: An agreement was entered into providing Stokely-Van Camp IncWikipedia-W.svg, a canned-food packaging company, with the US rights to production and sale of Gatorade as a commercial product. Additionally, a licensing arrangement made Gatorade the official sports drink of the National Football LeagueWikipedia-W.svg.
  • 1965: Gatorade was created by a team of scientists at the University of Florida College of Medicine, following a request from Florida Gators football coach to help athletes by acting as a replacement for body fluids lost during physical exertion. Robert Cade, one of the inventors of Gatorade, describes his invention in this letter.
Sources: GatoradeWikipedia-W.svg

Scotts Porage Oats

Scott's Porage Oats is a Scottish breakfast food, made from 100% rolled oats and nothing else - although the company has branched out into "Easy Pots", which contain dried milk and sugar.
Scott's is sold worldwide, packaged in a cardboard box with no metal or plastic attachments, thus making it 100% recyclable. website

Timeline
  • 1989: Production was moved to Cupar, near Fife. The mill was extensively expanded to cope with globalised product sales.
  • 1982: Quaker Oats acquired A & R Scott from Rank, Hovis McDougall.[12]
  • 1969: Cerebos Ltd, along with Scott's, was acquired by Premier Foods plc § Rank Hovis McDougall.
  • 1955: A & R Scott Ltd was acquired by Cerebos Ltd.
  • 1924: The Highlander Putting the Shot image was added to the packaging, on which it has remained ever since.
  • 1914: Scott's Porage: the company's name was changed to include "porage", to distinguish Scott's from competitors. The word "porage" is a mixture of the old Scottish word "poray" and the French word "potage".
  • 1893: A & R Scott's was shipping 32,000 oat cakes every week, including a fortnightly order for the Prince of Wales.
  • 1880: A & R Scott, two brothers, started making Scott's Midlothian Oat Flour, in Glasgow.ref
Sources: Our Heritage. Scott's Porage. Accessed Nov.06.2018.

Joint Ventures

  • ?date? Joint venture with Smith's in Australia
  • ?date?: Joint venture with Sabritas and Gamesa in Mexico.

Timeline

ToDo: Links: PepsiCo: Our History,
.
2010Frito-Lay reformulated Lay's Kettle and Lay's flavored chips into a new variant labeled as being made with all-natural ingredients.
2005Stacy's Pita Chip Company acquired by Frito-Lay North America.
2003Frito-Lay introduced the first products in its "Natural" line, made with organic ingredients: Organic Blue Corn Tostitos, Natural Lay's Potato Chips (seasoned with sea salt), and Natural Cheetos White Cheddar Puffs.
2001Quaker Oats Company merged with PepsiCo. Quaker snacks products, including Chewy granola bars, Gatorade, and Quaker rice cakes, becoming organized under the Frito-Lay North America operating division.
Apr.2000Frito-Lay asked its farmers not to grow GM potatoes.[41] However, PepsiCo does use GMO ingredients in countries where regulations allow it.
Late 1999Frito-Lay asked its suppliers not to use GM corn in response to lobbying efforts.
1998Acquired Savoy Brands (Latin America).
1998Acquired Smith's Snackfood Company (Australia)
1997Cracker Jack, candied popcorn snack, acquired by Frito-Lay.
1997Quavers acquired by Walkers.ref QuaversWikipedia-W.svg
1995Monster Munch brand taken over by Walkers.
1993Walkers and Smiths merged.
1991Sun Chips, a multi-grain chip.
1989Walkers and Smith's acquired by Frito-Lay.
Jan.1989Smartfood, a brand of cheese-flavored popcorn, acquired by Frito-Lay. Smartfoods Inc website
Early 1980sJoint-venture with Walkers, a UK chip and snack manufacturing company.
1980Grandma's Cookies acquired by Frito-Lay.
Jan.1978Tostitos: development of a Mexican-style tortilla chip completed by Frito-Lay.
1971Munchos introduced.
1969Funyuns introduced by Frito-Lay.
Jun.1965PepsiCo Inc: Frito-Lay merged with the Pepsi-Cola Company.
1964Doritos first produced by Frito-Lay.
Sept.1961Frito-Lay Inc: H.W. Lay & Company merged with The Frito Company. Frito-LayWikipedia-W.svg
1950sRichmond Potato Chip Company and the Capitol Frito Corporation acquired by Herman Lay.
1948Cheetos invented by Charles Doolin.
1948Walkers founded in England.
1945Lay's and the Frito Company worked together towards national distribution.
1944Name change to "the Lay's Lay Lingo Company".
1938Herman Lay acquired part of the Barrett Food Company's business, renaming it H.W. Lay Lingo & Company.
1932The Frito Company Charles Doolin started a snack food operation in his mother's kitchen, in Ohio.
1931Herman Lay sold potato chips out of his car.
ToDo: Brad’s Drink – Pepsi

Articles

  • Oct.07.2018: Crisp firm pledges to recycle packets. Walkers says it will recycle crisp packets posted back to the company by turning them into plant pots and benches. Last month, Royal Mail asked eco-activists to end the protest in which they returned bags to the crisp maker minus envelopes. The Times.
  • Aug.20.2018: Pepsi to buy SodaStream for $3.2bn in shift to health-conscious drinks. Pepsi said the transaction, expected to close by Jan.2019, is another step in bid to promote wellness. Pepsi will buy the Israel-based household drink-machine maker SodaStream as it battles chief rival Coca-Cola for an edge in the health-conscious beverage market. The company now focuses on turning water into sparkling water. SodaStream was in the spotlight several years ago when critics called for a boycott over a factory it had in the West Bank, despite employing many Palestinians. It has since closed that factory and relocated to a much larger facility in southern Israel. Reuters, The Guardian. See also The Times article here
  • Jun.14.2011: Plastic by Any Other Name. Coke and Pepsi’s plant-based bottles still damage the environment. The companies have merely replaced the fossil fuels (petroleum and natural gas) traditionally used to make their plastic bottles with ethanol from renewable sources. Though these initial inputs come from renewable, lower-carbon sources, the resulting plastics are chemically identical to the polyethylene terepthalate, or PET,and high-density polyethylene, or HDPE, that regular plastic bottles are made of. Amy Westervelt, Slate.

References

  1. ^ The A-List of Climate Policy Engagement. Which global companies lead in strategic lobbying for the ambitions of Paris? Rankings measure how a corporation or trade association behaves towards 2°C aligned climate and energy policy. Influence Map, Apr.2018.
  2. ^ The Brand Audit Report, Vol.1 Over the next 10 years, plastic production is slated to increase by 40%. Traditionally made from oil byproducts, but now increasingly made using fracked gas. Recycling is not a feasible solution to the plastic pollution crisis. Many plastics are very difficult, or impossible, to recycle. Megacorps make $billions of profits from the plastic-wrapped products - but leave communities to pay for and manage the negative impacts. As the food and products contained in plastic are consumed, people are accumulating phthalates and endocrine-disrupting chemicals in their bloodstreams. Break Free From Plastic, Oct.2018.
  3. ^ Corporate Political Engagement Index 2018. The new index of 104 multi-national companies, many of whom regularly meet with govt, has found nearly 75% are failing to adequately disclose how they engage with politicians. Only one company received the highest grade, with the average grade being "E" – representing poor standards in transparency. Transparency International UK, Nov.2018.
  4. ^ Quaker Oats Man ‘Larry’ Slims Down In Redesigned Logo. HuffPost, Mar.29.2012.
  5. ^ Honey monster not enough for Big Bear. Elaine Watson, Food Manufacture, Aug.28.2006.
  6. ^ Country Pure Foods to Acquire Quaker's Ardmore Farms's Product Lines Food Online, Jul.16.1998.
  7. ^ Quaker to Sell Snapple for $300 million Barnaby J Feder, New York Times, Mar.28.1997.
  8. ^ Quaker Oats Planning Fisher-Price Spinoff. Even Shapiro, New York Times, Apr.25.1990.
  9. ^ Fisher-Price to Be Bought by Mattel. Calvin Sims, New York Times, Aug.20.1993.
  10. ^ a b Reparations: Quaker Oats Sued for Unfair Use of ‘Aunt Jemima’ Image. Family Wants $2 billion. Stacks Magazine, Aug.11.2014.
  11. ^ a b c Aunt Jemima: It was Never About the Pancakes. Sarah Doneghy, The Weekly Challenger, Feb.08.2018. Original archived
  12. ^ a b Scott's Porage: Our Heritage. Scott's Porage Oats. Original archived on Jul.24.2010.
  13. ^ Video Game Firm Aligned With Fisher-Price. FultonHistory.com, The Journal-Register, Apr.26.1982.
  14. ^ Faded Glory: The Decline, Fall and Possible Salvation of Home Video. Pumpkin Press, Video Games, Vol.1 No.12, Sept.1983.
  15. ^ a b c Quaker Oats Company. Ohio History Central. Accessed Nov.15.2018.
  16. ^ The Fisher-Price Story Fisher Price. Original archived Accessed Nov.16.2018.
  17. ^ Fisher-Price Inc Company Histories. Accessed Nov.16.2018.
  18. ^ a b Is the guy on the Quaker Oats box John Penn? The Straight Dope. Accessed Nov.15.2018.
  19. ^ a b Watch The Evolution Of The Quaker Man Laura Stampler, , Feb.10.2012.
  20. ^ Aunt Jemima's Historical Timeline Aunt Jemima. Original archived on 2007.08.23.
  21. ^ Our History. Aunt Jemima, Nov.20.2018.
  22. ^ Quaker Oats box label, circa 1920s Crystal Radio. Accessed Nov.04.2018.
  23. ^ Oatmeal Trust Hearing: Evidence in Federal Suit Taken Before Woman Examiner. See also Uncle Sam Accuses Cereal Concerns of Forming Trust, The Virginia Enterprise. New York Times Archives, Mar.20.1914.
  24. ^ Mother's Trademark Information. Trademarkia, Aug.21.1907.
  25. ^ Independent Cereal Combine: Final Steps in the Consolidation Being Taken in Chicago. New York Times (archive), Mar.29.1901.
  26. ^ The Cereal Combination University of Oregon, Morning Oregonian, May.04.1901.
  27. ^ Tilden et al. v. Barber et al. Suit by William A Tilden and Charles D Thompson, receivers of the Great Western Cereal Company, against Ohio C Barber and others. Decree for complainants. Volume 268, Federal Reporter, Oct.08.1920.
  28. ^ How Ethel Hollister Became a Campfire Girl. Chapter XVI - Aunt Susan's trials. Irene Elliott Benson, Read Central. Accessed Nov.12.2018.
  29. ^ a b American Cereal Company. Ohio History Central. Accessed Nov.15.2018.
  30. ^ a b Quaker Oats Company in history. Food History, May.04.2018.
  31. ^ The Quaker Chronicles. Quaker Oats Company. Accessed Nov.14.2018.
  32. ^ Ferdinand Schumacher Ohio History Central. Accessed Nov.15.2018.
  33. ^ a b c Nancy Green, the original “Aunt Jemima”. African American Registry. Accessed Nov.11.2018.
  34. ^ Mammy, A Century of Race, Gender, and Southern Memory. Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan, Apr.2011.
  35. ^ a b c How Aunt Jemima Changed U.S. Trademark Law Matt Soniak, Mental Floss, Jun.15.2012.
  36. ^ Nancy Green, the first ‘Aunt Jemima’ Dave Tabler, Appalachian History, Mar.01.2017.
  37. ^ A Portrait of Nancy Green Carey Parrish, Sole Focus, May.26.2013.
  38. ^ Stories Behind 10 Famous Food Logos - Aunt Jemima Neatorama, Jan.22.2009.
  39. ^ Women Who Have Portrayed Aunt Jemima Moss H Kendrix: A Retrospective, The Museum of Public Relations. Original archived on 2000.09.30.
  40. ^ Aunt Hemima - Trademark Details The word "Aunt Hemima" have been continuously used by the applicant and its predecessors in business since Nov.27.1889. Justia Trademarks, Nov.24.1936.
  41. ^ Monsanto's Biotech Spud is being pulled from the Fryer at Fast-Food Chain. Scott Kilman, Wall Street Journal, Apr.28.2000.