Électricité de France SA
|"There’s only one country that’s stupid enough to sell off its electricity industry, and that’s Britain." — Confédération générale du travail (French trade union, Unison's counterpart),ref|
EDF is a French electric utility company, headquartered in Paris, and ~85% owned by the French state. EDF operates a diverse portfolio of 120+ gigawatts of generation capacity in Europe, South America, North America, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Group revenues in 2017/18 were €69.6bn, of which the UK's contribution was €8,688m. ref
France is the world's largest user of nuclear-generated electricity, from EDF's 58 nuclear reactors. EDF specialises in electricity, and its activities include: electricity generation and distribution; power plant design, construction and dismantling; energy trading; and transport.
Climate Policy Rating: InfluenceMap B-
EDF actively lobbies on energy and climate policy and is mostly supportive. EDF reportedly lobbied against EU energy efficiency targets but seems to actively support them in the UK. In 2015 it secretly lobbied for the development of a new coal mine in the UK. Despite its membership of pro-climate policy associations WindEurope and SolarPower Europe, EDF is also a member of BusinessEurope, and an active member of MEDEF, which both aggressively oppose climate and energy policy.
- 81.1% Government of France
- 1.06% Thornburg Investment Management Inc
- 0.99% Electricité de France SA Employees Stock Ownership Plan
- 0.43% Vanguard Group Inc
- 0.38% Norges Bank Investment Management
- 0.28% BlackRock Fund Advisors
- 0.19% T Rowe Price Associates Inc
- 0.18% DNCA Finance SA
- 0.17% Dimensional Fund Advisors LP
- 0.16% Odey Asset Management LLP
- EDF International SAS, Bloomberg, Bloomberg
- EDF Trading Markets Ltd, [CH 04255974]
- EDF Development Company Ltd, [CH]
- EDF DIN UK Ltd, [CH]
EDF Energy Ltd
- Electricity Generation: operates the power stations that produce electricity. This goes directly into the National Grid to be transmitted throughout the UK.
- Electricity and Gas Supply: buys gas and electricity from the wholesale market to sell onto customers.
- Nuclear (8): Dungeness B, Hartlepool, Heysham 1, Heysham 2, Hinkley Point B, Hunterston B, Sizewell B, Torness
- Gas (1): West Burton B CCGT
- Coal (1): Cottam and West Burton A
Nuclear New Build
|Oct.2010||Power Assets Holdings acquired § EDF Energy plc's ownership in its UK regulated and non-regulated network distribution assets; the Cheung Kong Group re-branded the distribution network to UK Power Networks. UK Power Networks Holdings Ltd was established to hold these assets, which comprised 3 regional electricity networks, providing nearly 25% of the electrical power in the UK. The assets also include a non-regulated business providing network-related infrastructure services to a number of privately-owned sites, ie. London Underground, Heathrow and Gatwick Airports, and Channel Tunnel Rail Link.ref|
|Jul.2010||EDF said it had received "an irrevocable offer" from Power Assets Holdings, a consortium led by Hong Kong's CK Hutchison Holdings Ltd, "to acquire 100% of EDF Energy's ownership in its UK regulated and non-regulated network activities". This encompassed the infrastructure EDF owned in the UK, such as cables and substations. It did not sell its power generation and supply interests, which means business and retail customers continued to buy their electricity from EDF. EDF needed to raise funds to reduce its debt levels. ref|
|Apr.2010||Eggborough Power Station was sold to EPH Group (Czech Republic).|
|Jul.2010||Li Ka-shing, in order to fund its purchase of Britain’s nuclear stations. The deal included long-term contracts with businesses such as the London Underground, the Channel Tunnel, and Heathrow and Gatwick airports. ref,ref,ref,ref|
|Aug.2009||British Energy: A 20% share in British Energy was sold to Centrica.|
|Aug.2009||British Energy: The creditors exercised their option to buy Eggborough, led by hedge funds BlueBay Asset Management and Strategic Value Partners. The transfer date was set for Apr.01.2010.|
|British Energy Group plc was acquired, except for the govt's Special Share. British Energy operated 8 nuclear power stations, plus the Eggborough coal-fired power station. The govt and Invesco were the largest shareholders, with a combined stake of ~45%. Prudential plc § M&G Prudential held 5%. The deal was finalised in Jan.2009, by EDF Energy (UK) Ltd's subsidiary, Lake Acquisitions Ltd. EDF agreed with the European Commission that Eggborough would be sold by Oct.2010 at the latest.|
|Jun.2006||The 'SWEB Energy' brand name was discontinued, and the retail energy business was absorbed into EDF Energy's brand.|
|Nov.2005||The EDF Group made an Initial Public Offering of its shares. To celebrate, a new visual identity was launched in Summer 2005: a combination of a new graphic logo with the orange ‘Vital Energy’ symbol, and updated typography for the company name. (see edf-jun.2006.gif).|
|British Energy found itself in a financial black hole, and the govt agreed to a £5bn bailout and restructure. The creditors took 97.5% of the equity in the restructured company, with the shareholders accepting 2.5%. The creditors were given the right to acquire Eggborough coal-fired power station for £104m plus the waiver of £83m of outstanding debt, exercisable up to Mar.31.2010.|
- Dec.2004: EDF Company structure
- Dec.31.2003: EDF Energy plc’s (formerly London Electricity Group plc’s) immediate parent company was EDF Energy Group Holdings plc (formerly London Electricity Group Holdings plc). Subsids: see A/cs Dec.31.2003, p.30 Joint ventures on p.32; Report and Financial Statements 2003.pdf LE Group a/cs, Structure on p.4; More interesting LE Group info here, Apr.2004.
- ??date??: ... the Sutton Bridge, West Burton and Cottam power. per 2002 a/cs: The Group owns West Burton and Cottam Power coal fired power stations in Nottinghamshire, and Sutton Bridge, the gas fired power station in Lincolnshire.The Group also has equity interests in Medway Power in Kent and Barking Power in Essex. stationsref
- Nov.2003: The Group disposed of its 37.5% holding in Medway Power Ltd.Annual Report, Dec.31.2003, p.33
- Jun.2003: LE Group changed its name to EDF Energy. The retail brands were London Energy, SWEB Energy and Seeboard Energy. Network name: EDF Energy. Generation name: EDF Energy. TXU Energi renamed Powergen.ref
- Dec.31.2002 a/cs: Dec.31.2002: London Electricity Group plc’s immediate parent company was London Electricity Group Holdings plc. Subsids: see p.25 here
- Oct.2002: TXU announced it was pulling out of Europe due mainly to the collapse of its UK operations.ref Powergen purchased TXU's UK businesses (ex-Eastern Electricity (distribution) + what else?) later that year.ref Powergen bought TXU’s retail and generation businesses. TXU’s continental operations, and other parts of the UK business, are still owned by TXU Europe.
- Jul.2002: Acquired SEEBOARD plc (formerly South Eastern Electricity Board) and South Western Electricity plc (formerly South Western Electricity Board). London Electricity Group plc bought SEEBOARD Power Networks plc as part of the acquisition of the SEEBOARD group of companies from American Electric Power Company Inc. SEEBOARD owns and maintains the electricity distribution network in the South East of England; also its electricity and gas retail business and private asset management interests.Annual Report, Dec.31.2002
- Jul.2002: London Electricity Group plc acquired the entire share capital of CSW Investments, the holding company of the SEEBOARD plc group of companies.Annual Report, Dec.31.2002
- Feb.2002: London Power Company (CH), a subsidiary of London Electricity Group plc, acquired 3 new companies: High Hedley Hope Limited, Kirkheaton Wind Limited and Northern Offshore Wind Limited.Annual Report, Dec.31.2002
- Jan.2002: London Electricity Group plc bought TXU Europe Group plc’s UK distribution network and its 50% interest in 24seven Utility Services (which maintains the electricity distribution network in London and East Anglia). The acquired distribution business was renamed EPN Distribution Ltd and 24seven Utility Services Ltd became a wholly-owned subsidiary. EPN Distribution Ltd’s distribution business is the largest in the UK and consists of the assets and wires that deliver electricity through a 90,000km network in East Anglia.Annual Report, Dec.31.2002
- Jan.2002: London Electricity Group plc acquired the entire issued share capital of 24seven Utility Services Limited, 50% from TXU Europe Group plc and 50% from London Electricity Group Holdings plc.Annual Report, Dec.31.2002
- Jan.2002: the Group acquired the entire share capital of EPN Distribution Limited.Annual Report, Dec.31.2002
- 2002: London Electricity plc re-branded as EDF Energy Ltd. website.
- 2002: The EDF Energy brand was formed after EDF purchased SEEBOARD (South Eastern Electricity Board) and SWEB Energy (South Western Electricity Board), merged them with London Electricity under one brand, and combined all their activities. EDF Energy also purchased 3 UK power stations to further increase their UK capabilities.ref,(ref-02)
- Jan.2002: LE Group purchase of TXU Europe=s distribution business completed. The new company is called EPN Distribution Limited, trading as EPN. TXU's 50% share in 24 Seven Utilities Service Ltd was also sold to LE Group.ref
- Nov.2001: LE Group confirmed it is to buy TXU=s distribution business, subject to regulatory approval. Completed 18 Jan 2002. ref
- Oct.2001: London Power Company plc was transferred into the London Electricity Group.
- Jan.2001: The UK Metering & Data services market was opened up to full competition. LE Group’s metering related activities were restructured into two subsidiary companies (ECS Metering Services Ltd and ECS Data Services Ltd) operating under a single brand: ECS Metering & Data Services. Electricity suppliers in 2000 could choose the company from which they bought metering services and the vast majority of suppliers in the London area chose ECS.... LE Group Annual Report 2000, p.27
- Dec.31.2000: JVs + Subsids - see Annual Report, Dec.31.2000, p.58 London Electricity Group plc’s immediate parent company is regarded by the directors as EDF (UK) Limited.
- Dec.2000: London Power Company entered into a finance lease for Cottam power station, a 2000MW coal fired plant in Nottinghamshire.Annual Report, Dec.31.2000
- Jul.2000: Virgin Energy was launched in July 2000 to acquire new customers and develop a national presence. LE Group has a 25% stake in this joint venture. Research indicates Virgin is the brand most likely to be embraced by energy customers and most feared by competitors.
- May.2000: London Electricity plc sold the remaining part of London Electricity Contracting Ltd to Eastern Contracting (Holdings) Ltd.Annual Report, Dec.31.2000
- Apr.2000: The London Power Company Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of London Electricity Group, acquired Sutton Bridge, a 790MW combined cycle gas turbine plant in Lincolnshire, from Enron.Annual Report, Dec.31.2000 The Sutton Bridge group of companies consists of 5 companies as follows, Sutton Bridge Power Ltd, Sutton Bridge Investors Ltd, Sutton Bridge Holdings Holdings Ltd, Sutton Bridge Financing Ltd and Sutton Bridge Holdings Ltd.
- Apr.2000: 24 Seven Utility Services Ltd commenced operations. 24seven is a joint venture company created by London Electricity Group plc and TXU Europe to maintain and operate the electricity distribution networks of the two companies. London Electricity plc has a service contract with 24seven. The network engineering work of London Electricity Contracting Ltd was transferred to the new company 24Seven.
- Apr.2000: LE Group formed LPN (London Power Networks), with a responsibility for governing its public network assets.Group Report 2000 "London Electricity" became a supply brand.
- 2000: EDF acquired Cottam Coal Station, privatised in 1991. Powergen had inherited Cottam from the Central Electricity Generating Board.
- Oct.1999: London Electricity used the SWEB brand for electricity and gas supply in the region; the distribution business was renamed Western Power Distribution.ref, p.5
- Sept.1999: Southern Company sold its 49% stake in SWEB's supply operations to London Electricity, owned by EDF Energy.ref,ref, p.60, who discontinued the 'SWEB' brandname in Jun.2006.ref
British Energy plc
FixMe: Move British Energy into here. WP:British Energy
- Jul.2010: British Energy was rebranded as EDF Energy.
- Aug.2009|Centrica purchased a 20% share of British Energy from EDF.ref
- Jan.2009: EDF's acquisition of British Energy was finalised. As part of the purchase process, Eggborough divested from EDF and became an independent business in Apr.2010.ref
- Sept.2008|EDF announced that it had agreed a takeover of the company,ref with Centrica planning to take a 25% stake after the deal was completed. The takeover was allowed despite EDF being under investigation by OfGem over allegations of price-setting. ref
- Apr.2008: Raised electricity prices by 17% and gas prices by 22%. (?ref?)
- Sept.2002|A cacophony of failures, primarily by the Department of Trade & Industry, led to British Energy becoming mired in serious financial difficulties. The govt was forced to dig deep into the public purse to prop it up.
- Aug.2000|SWALEC: Having failed to acquire another electricity retailer at an acceptable price to create a wider retail presence, British Energy sold SWALEC to Scottish and Southern Energy.
- Mar.2000: Eggborough power station was acquired,ref at the peak of the market for power stations. In 2002, Eggborough's value was written down by 50%. The acquisition also increased the volume of electricity that British Energy would have to sell in a highly competitive market with falling wholesale prices.ref, p.22
- Mar.2000|Eggborough: Concerned about its lack of flexible generation, British Energy bought Eggborough coal-fired station from National Power plc.ref, p.19
- Jun.1999|SWALEC: In an attempt to become a vertically integrated generating and retail company, British Energy bought SWALEC, a retail electricity and gas supplier, from Hyder plc.ref This gave it a 6% share of the electricity supply market, not enough for a sustainable business. The acquisition completed in Feb.2000.ref, pp.2, 22
- Jun.1998|British Energy announced the planned merger of its operating divisions Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Ltd. The merger was completed in Jan.1999, forming a single division, British Energy Generation Ltd.
- Jul.1996|British Energy was floated.ref
- Mar.1996|British Energy and its operating subsidiaries, Nuclear Electric Ltd and Scottish Nuclear Ltd, were vested.
- 1995|British Energy was established to operate the 8 most modern nuclear power plants. It took the 2 AGR plants from Scottish Nuclear Ltd, 5 AGR and 1 PWR plant from Nuclear Electric Ltd.ref,ref The older Magnox power stations from these two companies were transferred to Magnox Electric, which later became the generation division of British Nuclear Fuels plc.
- 1995-1996: The assets of Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Ltd were both combined and split. The combination process merged operations of the 8 most modern nuclear plants – 7 Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor and 1 Pressurised Water Reactor – into a new private company, British Energy. The splitting process created another separate company, Magnox Electric, to hold the older Magnox reactors.
The govt's shareholding in Magnox Electric was transferred to British Nuclear Fuels plc in Jan.1998. Magnox Electric became a wholly-owned subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels plc, to be known as "British Nuclear Fuels plc Magnox Generation". Magnox Generation was later operated and managed by US-based EnergySolutions through its Jun.2007 acquisition of BNFL subsidiary "Reactor Sites Management Company". See Nuclear Power Policy § British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.
- Mar.1990|Pre-privatisation restructuring: the CEGB was split into 4 companies: nuclear generation to Nuclear Electric; fossil-fuel generation went to National Power and PowerGen; and the transmission system went to the National Grid Company plc, operator of the National Grid. See Privatisation Policy § Electricity.
London Electricity plc
- Sept.1999: SWEB Energy, the retail electricity supply business of South Western Electricity plc, was purchased from USA firms PP&L and Southern Company by London Electricity plc.ref,ref,ref re SWEB. London Electricity used the SWEB brand name for electricity and gas supply in the region.ref, p.5
- Dec.1998: Entergy Corporation (USA); Entergy Power UK plc decided to sell it after it proved a drag on overall earnings and had raised debt.ref,ref,ref,AR-Dec.1998, p.2
- ?date? LE plc diversified into gas distribution.
- Dec.1996: Entergy Corporation's UK arm, announced an agreed takeover bid for London Electricity plc. Takeover completed Feb.1997.ref, ref,ref,ref When news of the deal broke, Peter Mandelson was in charge at the Department of Trade & Industry. New in the job and eager to prove he was more than just a master of the political dark arts, he claimed he modelled himself on a Tory predecessor, Michael Heseltine, who had pledged to ‘intervene before breakfast, lunch and dinner’ on the side of British industry. But Mandelson never had a chance to put the case; a few weeks after EDF made its move, he was on the brink of tears, listening to Tony Blair telling him over the phone that he had to resign. Details had emerged of an undeclared £373,000 loan Mandelson had taken from Treasury minister Geoffrey Robinson to buy a house in Notting Hill, an untenable conflict of interest. Mandelson quit, and passed into his personal Golgotha: a small flat, a Fiat Punto, and Friday nights shopping in Hartlepool Tesco's.ref
- Dec.1990: London Electricity plc, formerly the London Electricity Board, was privatised and floated, along with the other 13 Regional Electricity Companies.
- Jun.2006: combined everyone into EDF Energy link. Discontinued using the "SWEB" brand.ref
- Oct.2005: French govt sold a 15% stake in Electricite de France.ref
- 2004: 24seven was hived up into LE Group.
- 2003: LE Group rebranded to become EDF Energy Networks, the UK branch of Électricité de France, before being acquired by Cheung Kong Holdings and renamed UK Power Networks. ref
- 2002: SEEBOARD joined 24seven Utility Services Ltd under the ownership of the LE Group.
- Oct.2001: London Electricity plc was renamed to London Electricity Group plc.
- Électricité de France was created along with its sister company Gaz de France by the French Government.ref
- Nov.2010: EDF Energy (South East) Ltd was renamed to UK Power Networks Services (South East) Ltd.
- Oct.2010: UK Power Networks Holdings Ltd acquired the Distribution Networks and associated non-regulated businesses, including EDF Energy (South East) Ltd, from EDF Energy plc. UK-PNH is a consortium comprising:
- Power Assets Holdings Ltd (formerly Hong Kong Electric Holdings Ltd, reg. Hong Kong
- Li Ka Shing Foundaton Ltd, reg. Hong Kong
- Cheung Kong Infrastructure Holdings Ltd, reg. Bermuda
- Aug.2010: EDF Energy (South East) plc (SEEBOARD) re-registered as a private limited company.
- Sept.2005: EDF Energy (South East) plc's business operations were hived up, and it became a holding company, plus a provider of management and property services.
- Aug.2005: Name changed to EDF Energy (Development Branch) plc.
- Jun.2003: Group Restructure: 24seven Utility Services was renamed to EDF Energy Networks Ltd.
London Electricity Group plc was renamed to EDF Energy plc.
SEEBOARD was renamed to EDF Energy (South East) plc. Its regulated supply operations was transferred to SEEBOARD Energy Ltd, and the regulated distribution operation to EDF Energy Networks (SPN) plc (formerly SEEBOARD Power Networks plc).
- Nov.2002: EDF signed an agreement with Westinghouse Electric Company, a 100% subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd for supplying 20% of its requirements in nuclear fuel.ref
- Jul.2002: American Electric Power Company Inc sold its interest in SEEBOARD to LE Group.ref,A/cs Dec.2002
- Jun.2002: SEEBOARD plc was acquired by Electricite de France.ref,ref
- Jan.2002: London Electricity Group acquired TXU Europe's holdings in 24seven Utility Services, as a consequence of TXU Europe withdrawing its European operations. ref
- Jun.2000: Central and South West Corporation was acquired by American Electric Power Company Inc; accordingly, ownership of SEEBOARD passed to AEP on completion of the deal.ref
- Mar.2000: 24seven Utility Services Ltd was a 50/50 joint venture between London Electricity Group plc and TXU Europe Group plc.++A/cs Dec.2000 24seven Utility Services was formed to outsource the operation and maintenance of their distribution network systems.ref
- Aug.1998: Seeboard Powerlink Ltd, a subsidiary of SEEBOARD plc, was awarded a 30-year PFI contract (1998-2028) for the operation, maintainance, and upgrade of the high-voltage electricity supply network for the London Underground Railway. Seeboard Powerlink became responsible for the distribution of high-voltage electricity supplies to London Underground's substations, and 400+ km of track.A/cs Dec.1998
- Jun.1998: SEEBOARD's retail business was sold to Dixons Stores Group plc. A/cs Dec.1998
- Nov.1995: Central and South West Corporation acquired SEEBOARD plc.ref,A/cs Dec.1995 The transacton was completed in Apr.1996, and the company was delisted. The regulated (retail) and non-regulated (business) operations were separated out.
- 1996: SEEBOARD plc was acquired by Central & South West (USA).
- Dec.1990: SEEBOARD plc, formerly South Eastern Electricity Board, was privatised and floated, along with the other 13 Regional Electricity Companies.ref
- ?date? SEEBOARD acquired Southern Gas Ltd; subsequently renamed to ...
- CSW Investments = the holding company of SEEBOARD Group plc
- Jun.2003: TXU Energi renamed Powergen. ref
- TXU Europe was the European arm of Texas Utilities. TXU Europe already owned Eastern Electricity plc, renamed Eastern Group (was Eastern Electricity Board), acquired in 1995.
- 1989: London Power Company had been formed to hold a number of minority shares in generation, but in Nov.2000 it was formally invested with responsibility for managing the Group’s growing generation assets.
- 1988: London Electricity Services Ltd was incorporated. Now known as EDF Energy (Services) Ltd, it offers (private?) electricity distribution services.ref, A/cs Mar.31.1991,ref (Nb: LE held 10.5% of National Grid Company plc as its ex-REC share.)
- Jun.2003: EDF is 100% owned by the French govt, which is preparing to alter the company’s statutes to allow partial privatisation.
- 2000: Under legislation passed in France, a separate business unit, RTE, was created for managing the transmission network. RTE is 100% owned by EDF.
- Late 1990s: EDF was responsible for 94% of generation, 100% of transmission and international electricity trade, and 96% of distribution in France.
- 1946: EDF was established by nationalising and combining about 1,400 generators and network companies.
- Apr.15.2018: Energy price hikes. EDF is raising electricity prices by 2.7% on Jun.07.2018, adding about £16 to the average annual bill. The move will affect about 1.3m customers. Dual-fuel customers who make quarterly cash or cheque payments will also incur an additional £6 per fuel. The announcement came 2 days after British Gas said it would increase both gas and electricity bills by 5.5% on May.29, adding about £60 to the average annual bill and affecting 4.1m customers. Ali Hussain, The Times.
- Oct.27.2017: What are EDF up to? Some scandalous new information has come to our attention which we believe you need to know about. It turns out EDF is up to some sneaky tricks to maximise their profits, leaving loyal customers massively out of pocket. In 1990, when the UK's regional electricity boards were privatised, the UK's energy supply was divvied up amongst the Big Six companies (British Gas, E.ON, EDF Energy, npower, Scottish Energy and SSE). EDF are exploiting their monopoly over their own regions. The Big Deal.
- Apr.15.2013: EDF's abuse of power. Power company EDF hit the headlines by threatening to sue climate campaigners for £5m. EDF’s main revenue stream comes from generating electricity through nuclear power... renewable energy makes up just 0.1% of its portfolio. It is the UK's largest electricity generator and distribution network operator. ... Energy regulator OfGem reported that EDF was the most complained-about of the Big Six in 2012. EDF also performs poorly on carbon emissions. In 2011, a French court fined the company £1.3m and sent two of its staff to jail for spying on Greenpeace anti-nuclear campaigners. Also in 2011, FoI requests by Green MP Caroline Lucas revealed that EDF, alongside other companies such as npower and Centrica, had ~50 employees working within the govt on energy issues over a 4-year period, including drafting energy policy. In Oct.2012, its new flagship combined cycle gas turbine power station at West Burton was targeted by No Dash for Gas climate activists, who shut it down for a week. The new plant will emit approximately 4.5m tonnes of CO2 per year when operating at full capacity – more than the annual emissions of Paraguay. The "No Dash for Gas" activists pleaded guilty to aggravated trespass in February and await sentence on Jun.06. In the meantime, EDF slapped an unprecedented civil suit for £5m on the protesters. The tactic, labelled ‘reputational suicide’ by PR sustainability guru Brendan May, proved a disaster for EDF. (some good bg info in here.) Ewa Jasiewicz, Red Pepper.
- Oct.13.2009: Nuclear Materials Stored In Siberian Parking Lots. French documentary "Nuclear Nightmare" has revealed that radioactive materials from nuclear power plants are being being stored in containers in a Siberian parking lot. Meanwhile the largest power company in Europe, France's EDF, which sent the materials there, says it is not responsible. Research by the documentary filmmakers showed that France sends around 13% of its radioactive waste (108 tons of uranium) to Siberia every year. The situation revolves around a legal loophole - recycled uranium or plutonium is not classified as nuclear waste. Russia. Spiegel.de.
- InfluenceMap Score: EDF Energy. InfluenceMap. Accessed Dec.08.2018.
- The A-List of Climate Policy Engagement. Which global companies lead in strategic lobbying for the ambitions of Paris? Rankings measure how a corporation or trade association behaves towards 2°C aligned climate and energy policy. Influence Map, Apr.2018.
- How We Operate. EDF Energy. Accessed Jan.12.2021.
- EDF Energy Fuel Mix. EDF Energy. Accessed Jan.12.2020.
- Approval from the OFT of Centrica’s acquisition of 20% of British Energy from EDF. Centrica, Aug.07.2009.
- Bank of America, Merrill Lynch and Eggborough Power. Saved on Slideshare. Risk.net, Mar.01.2011.
- EDF agrees to buy British Energy BBC News, Sept.24.2008.
- EdF buys British Energy for £12.5bn. The Telegraph, Sept.24.2008.
- The Restructuring of British Energy. Public Accounts Committee, Parliament.uk.
- Hedge funds to buy EDF's Eggborough power plant. Reuters, Aug.27.2009.