International Business Machines Corporation

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The company began in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924.

IBM is an American multinational technology company, and one of the world's leading computer services companies, with operations in 170+ countries. Sales activity breaks down into:

  • 64.4%: IT services: consulting (management of logistic chains, financial performance, CRM, human resources, etc.), application management, systems integration, cloud computing, hosting, technical support services, etc.;
  • 23.2%: Cognitive solutions and transaction processing software development;
  • 10.1%: Sale of IT equipment and softwares (): microcomputers, servers, peripheral devices, networks, data storage equipment, etc.;
  • 2%: Financing of computer equipment;
  • 0.3%: Other.

Corporate Political Engagement Rating:[1] Transparency International    B  



Total float: 39.6%
Source: MarketScreener.svg, Mar.2020


  • Oct.2020: IBM announced it will spin off its IT Infrastructure Services unit, which will then be listed as a separate company by the end of 2021.[2]
  • 2019: Red Hat acquired.
  • 1924: International Business Machines: the company was renamed.
  • 1911: The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company of New York was founded.

Red Hat Inc

ToDo: link, Website, Website.arch, Anti-Trust case 1969

ArsDigita Corporation

ToDo: link, link, Website.arch
  • 2002: ArsDigita's key assets, technologies, and personnel (especially the pinball machine) were acquired by Red Hat.ref
  • 1997: founded.


  • Feb.2021: The Crown Commercial Service awarded Accenture, Capita and IBM spots on an £800m framework created to help the NHS shift to a more agile and/or DevOps-like approach to development and support. They joined Aire Logic, BJSS, Cognizant, Hippo Digital, Infinity Works Consulting, Informed Solutions, Kainos Software, Mastek and Netcompany on the contracting arrangement intended to build and manage live NHS services and oversee data system migration under the "Digital Capability for Health" scheme.[3]


  1. ^ Corporate Political Engagement Index 2018. The new index of 104 multi-national companies, many of whom regularly meet with govt, has found nearly 75% are failing to adequately disclose how they engage with politicians. Only one company received the highest grade, with the average grade being "E" – representing poor standards in transparency. Transparency International UK, Nov.2018.
  2. ^ IBM to break up 109-year old company to focus on cloud growth. Munsif Vengattil, Reuters, Oct.08.2020.
  3. ^ Accenture, Capita, IBM jump on £800m framework to make the NHS more agile as announces further reforms. Lindsay Clark, The Register, Feb.15.2021.