Greater London Authority

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The GLA is the top-tier administrative body for Greater London. It consists of a directly elected executive § Mayor of London, currently Sadiq Khan, and an elected 25-member § London Assembly with scrutiny powers. It was established in 2000, following a local referendum, and derives most of its powers from the Greater London Authority Act 1999 and the Greater London Authority Act 2007.

The GLA is a strategic regional authority, with powers over transport, policing, economic development, and fire and emergency planning. Three functional bodies — § Transport for London, the § Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime, and the § London Fire Commissioner — are responsible for delivery of services in these areas. The planning policies of the Mayor of London are detailed in a statutory London Plan that is regularly updated and published.

The GLA is mostly funded by direct govt grant, and is also a precepting authority, with some money collected with local Council Tax. The GLA is unique in the Local Government system in terms of structure, elections and selection of powers. The authority was established to replace a range of joint boards and quangos and provided an elected upper tier of local govt in London for the first time since the abolition of the § Greater London Council in 1986.

Mayor of London

Responsible for delivery of economic development. The planning policies of the Mayor of London are detailed in a statutory London Plan that is regularly updated and published.

Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime

Responsible for delivery of policing services.

London Assembly

The London Assembly is an elected body, part of the Greater London Authority, that scrutinises the activities of the Mayor of London and has the power, with a two-thirds majority, to amend the Mayor's annual budget and to reject the Mayor's draft statutory strategies. London AssemblyWikipedia-W.svg

List of London Assembly constituencies

Greater London is divided into 14 territorial constituencies for London Assembly elections, each returning one member. List of London Assembly constituenciesWikipedia-W.svg, United Kingdom constituencies § London Assembly constituenciesWikipedia-W.svg

List of Parliamentary constituencies in London

The region of Greater London, including the City of London, is divided into 73 parliamentary constituencies which are sub-classified as borough constituencies, affecting the type of electoral officer and level of expenses permitted. List of Parliamentary constituencies in LondonWikipedia-W.svg

London boroughs

The London boroughs are 32 of the 33 local authority districts of the Greater London administrative area (the 33rd is the City of London) and are each governed by a London borough council.

London borough councils provide the majority of local government services, in contrast to the strategic Greater London Authority, which has limited authority over all of Greater London. London boroughs § London borough councilsWikipedia-W.svg

List of London boroughs
This is a list of local authority districts within Greater London, including 32 London boroughs and the City of London. List of London boroughsWikipedia-W.svg
  1. Barking and Dagenham, London Borough of Barking and DagenhamWikipedia-W.svg > Barking and Dagenham London Borough Council, Barking and Dagenham London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  2. Barnet, London Borough of BarnetWikipedia-W.svg > Barnet London Borough Council, Barnet London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  3. Bexley, London Borough of BexleyWikipedia-W.svg > Bexley London Borough Council, Bexley London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  4. Brent, London Borough of BrentWikipedia-W.svg > Brent London Borough Council, Bromley London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  5. Bromley, London Borough of BromleyWikipedia-W.svg > Bromley London Borough Council, Bromley London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  6. Camden, London Borough of CamdenWikipedia-W.svg > Camden London Borough Council, Camden London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  7. Croydon, London Borough of CroydonWikipedia-W.svg > Croydon London Borough Council, Croydon London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  8. Ealing, London Borough of EalingWikipedia-W.svg > Ealing London Borough Council, Ealing London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  9. Enfield, London Borough of EnfieldWikipedia-W.svg > Enfield London Borough Council, Enfield London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  10. Greenwich, Royal Borough of GreenwichWikipedia-W.svg > Greenwich London Borough Council, Greenwich London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  11. Hackney, London Borough of HackneyWikipedia-W.svg > Hackney London Borough Council, Hackney London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  12. Hammersmith and Fulham, London Borough of Hammersmith and FulhamWikipedia-W.svg > Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough Council, Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  13. Haringey, London Borough of HaringeyWikipedia-W.svg > Haringey London Borough Council, Haringey London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  14. Harrow, London Borough of HarrowWikipedia-W.svg > Harrow London Borough Council, Harrow London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  15. Havering, London Borough of HaveringWikipedia-W.svg > Havering London Borough Council, Havering London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  16. Hillingdon, London Borough of HillingdonWikipedia-W.svg > Hillingdon London Borough Council, Hillingdon London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  17. Hounslow, London Borough of HounslowWikipedia-W.svg > Hounslow London Borough Council, Hounslow London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  18. Islington, London Borough of IslingtonWikipedia-W.svg > Islington London Borough Council, Islington London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  19. Kensington and Chelsea, Royal Borough of Kensington and ChelseaWikipedia-W.svg > Kensington and Chelsea London Borough Council, Kensington and Chelsea London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  20. Kingston upon Thames, Royal Borough of Kingston upon ThamesWikipedia-W.svg > Kingston upon Thames London Borough Council, Kingston upon Thames London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  21. Lambeth, London Borough of LambethWikipedia-W.svg > Lambeth London Borough Council, Lambeth London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  22. Lewisham, London Borough of LewishamWikipedia-W.svg > Lewisham London Borough Council, Lewisham London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  23. Merton, London Borough of MertonWikipedia-W.svg > Merton London Borough Council, Merton London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  24. Newham, London Borough of NewhamWikipedia-W.svg > Newham London Borough Council, Newham London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  25. Redbridge, London Borough of RedbridgeWikipedia-W.svg > Redbridge London Borough Council, Redbridge London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  26. Richmond upon Thames, London Borough of Richmond upon ThamesWikipedia-W.svg > Richmond upon Thames London Borough Council, Richmond upon Thames London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  27. Southwark, London Borough of SouthwarkWikipedia-W.svg > Southwark London Borough Council, Southwark London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  28. Sutton, London Borough of SuttonWikipedia-W.svg > Sutton London Borough Council, Sutton London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  29. Tower Hamlets, London Borough of Tower HamletsWikipedia-W.svg > Tower Hamlets London Borough Council, Tower Hamlets London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  30. Waltham Forest, London Borough of Waltham ForestWikipedia-W.svg > Waltham Forest London Borough Council, Waltham Forest London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  31. Wandsworth, London Borough of WandsworthWikipedia-W.svg > Wandsworth London Borough Council, Wandsworth London Borough CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  32. Westminster, City of WestminsterWikipedia-W.svg > Westminster City Council, Westminster City CouncilWikipedia-W.svg
  33. City of London, City of LondonWikipedia-W.svg > Corporation of London, Corporation of LondonWikipedia-W.svg; Inner Temple Inner TempleWikipedia-W.svg; Middle Temple Middle TempleWikipedia-W.svg

Associated Groups

  • London Councils is the local govt association for Greater London, England. It is a cross-party organisation that represents London's 32 borough councils and the City of London. London CouncilsWikipedia-W.svg

Transport for London

Transport for London is a local govt body responsible for the transport system in Greater London, England.[1]

TfL has responsibility for London's network of principal road routes, for various rail networks including the London Underground, London Overground, Docklands Light Railway and TfL Rail. It does not control National Rail services in London, however. But does for London's trams, buses and taxis, for cycling provision, and for river services. The underlying services are provided by a mixture of wholly owned subsidiary companies (principally London Underground), by private sector franchisees (the remaining rail services, trams and most buses) and by licensees (some buses, taxis and river services). TfL is also responsible, jointly with the national Department for Transport (DfT), for commissioning the construction of the new Crossrail line, and will be responsible for franchising its operation once completed.[3]
In 2015–16, TfL had a budget of £11.5 bn, 40% of which comes from fares. The rest comes from govt funding (23%), borrowing (20%), Congestion Charge and other income (9%) and Crossrail funding (8%).ref (WP)

Crossrail Ltd

Crossrail Ltd was established in 2001 to build the new railway through central London that will eventually be called the Elizabeth line. It is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Transport for London (TfL) and is jointly sponsored by TfL and the Department for Transport. Once the railway is complete, it will be run by TfL as part of London’s integrated transport network.
  • Crossrail Ltd, CH
    • PSC: Transport Trading Ltd CH, Transport For London, Department For Transport
  • Funding: link

  • Nov.03.2020: Crossrail 2 plans shelved as part of £1.8bn TfL funding deal. Plans to build Crossrail 2 will be shelved as part of the £1.8bn bailout deal agreed by the govt and Transport for London. TfL will also have to further investigate driverless trains under the terms of the deal to provide emergency funds to the capital, which has lost £bns in passenger revenue due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Gwyn Topham, The Guardian.
  • Dec.15.2018: Crossrail chiefs get £700k bonus despite delays. Executives in charge of Crossrail were handed bonuses of £725,000 months before the line was officially delayed by at least a year and spiralled over budget. A TfL spokesman said bonuses awarded in 2017-18 reflected performance in the previous year. Graeme Paton, The Times.
  • Oct.07.2018: Chris Grayling ready to step in as Crossrail costs soar. Chris Grayling’s department has a clause that entitles it to take ownership from #Transport for London (TfL) if the new rail link blows its budget. Taking control of the Elizabeth line would deprive London mayor Sadiq Khan of £hundreds of millions in fares and deepen the financial crisis at the capital’s independent transport body. Crossrail admitted in July that the project’s costs would swell by £590m to £15.4bn. A month later, Crossrail said it was about 9 months behind schedule. The project is now likely to cost at least £1bn more than its original £14.9bn budget. Crossrail is co-funded by TfL and the Department for Transport (DfT), with businesses also contributing via a levy. TfL is controlled by the mayor and relies largely on fares, capital markets and commercial income. John Collingridge, The Times.
  • Sept.02.2018: Taxpayer bill for Crossrail balloons by £1bn. Crossrail needs a further taxpayer bailout and could blow its budget by up to £1bn if it is to open next autumn. It was announced on Friday that the opening of the new east-west London line would be delayed from December until next September. Rail minister Jo Johnson confirmed in July that the budget had risen by £590m to £15.4bn. Crossrail’s woes are understood to stem from problems with integrating the new Bombardier-built trains with trackside equipment, the complexity of new software systems and the challenges posed by three different types of signalling equipment. John Collingridge, The Times.

London Fire Commissioner

Responsible for delivery of fire and emergency planning services.


Greater London Authority

  • May.2000: GLA: the Greater London Authority comprises the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The Mayor is responsible for setting the budget and some statutory strategies for five organisations, "the GLA Group": the Greater London Authority, Transport for London, the Metropolitan Police Authority, the London Development Agency and the London Fire & Emergency Planning Authority. ToDo: ...
  • Apr.1986: After the Greater London Council was abolished, its powers were devolved to the London boroughs and other entities controlled by Central Govt, or joint boards nominated by the London borough councils. The limitations became evident almost immediately. The new body was considerably weaker than the GLC, despite having a number of powers, especially in relation to the Metropolitan Police. The Mayor had no tax-raising powers, and there were wide areas in which the Mayor was unable to act without the secretary of state's approval.
    Bodies: London Planning Advisory Committee; Inner London Education Authority; London Boroughs Grants Committee; London Fire and Civil Defence Authority; London Planning Advisory Committee; London Regional Transport; London Research Centre; and various others.
    • 1998: a Referendum was held on the establishment of a new strategic authority headed by a directly-elected Mayor. The 72%/28% result mandated the govt to pass the Greater London Authority Act 1999.
    • 1985-1996: the London Residuary Body, "an unelected, unaccountable body whose members were hand-picked by the Govt, ... [and] chaired by a Thatcherite Conservative",[6] was set up to dispose of the GLC's assets. All of its proceedings were in secret; no minutes were made available to MPs.
      • County Hall: the Inner London Education Authority was summarily evicted, and the property sold to a Japanese entertainment company, Shirayama Shokusan Comapany Ltd. It now houses the London Aquarium and the London Dungeon, amongst other, link, link, link
      • Parliament Hill Lido
      • London Docklands Development Corporation: land acquisition.ref
      • 3,500 seaside and country homes were sold to ??
      • Workspace Group plc (formerly, London Industrial plc) was established in 1987 as the vehicle for the privatisation of part of the former Greater London Council’s industrial property portfolio. With capital of £17m subscribed by a group of 12 institutions, it acquired from the London Residuary Body a portfolio of 18 small-unit multi-tenanted industrial estates comprising some 710,000 sq. ft. of floorspace.[7]
    • ToDo: Admiralty Arch, Old War Office, the former Greater London Council headquarters, Brompton Road tube station, link; Crosby Hall, link;
    • 1988: the Inner London Education Authority was disbanded, with the Inner London Boroughs assuming control over education via Local Education Authorities, as the Outer Boroughs had done on their creation in Apr.1965.[8]

Greater London Council

  • 1965: GLC: the Greater London Council was created as a new body covering all of London rather than just the inner part, empowering 32 newly-created London boroughs,[9] under the London Government Act 1963. The GLC was responsible for running strategic services such as the fire service, emergency planning, waste disposal and flood prevention. It shared responsibility with the London Boroughs for providing roads, housing, city planning and leisure services.
    • Mar.1986: The GLC was dissolved by the Local Government Act 1985 despite considerable opposition, with its powers devolved to the London boroughs and other entities.
    • 1985: Margaret Thatcher's govt, under pressure from Outer London Conservatives to free them from the "tax high, spend high" Labour-dominated Council, set about abolishing the GLC on the grounds of inefficiency for ideological reasons.[10] Critics argued that the GLC's abolition was politically motivated (as with that of the Metropolitan County Councils), because it had become a powerful vehicle for opposition to Thatcher's govt.
    • 1970: The GLC took control of public transport from the London Transport Board; in 1984, lost control to London Regional Transport.
    • Apr.1965: the new Inner London Education Authority took over the LCC's responsibility for education. In Outer London (the rest of Greater London), the various London boroughs each became a Local Education Authority.[8]

London County Council

  • Mar.1889: LCC: the London County Council was formed as a single body covering the area today known as Inner London; it was the first London-wide general municipal authority to be directly elected. The LCC took over the MBoW's responsibilities and powers, and were given wider authority over matters such as education, city planning and council housing. Local Government Act 1888
    • 1933: the LCC Tramways were taken over by the London Passenger Transport Board.
    • 1903: the LCC took over the functions of the London School Board.
    • 1900: 28 metropolitan boroughs were created as lower tier authorities to replace the various local vestries and boards, which assumed some of the LCC's powers, and shared others.
    • 1899: progressively acquired and operated the tramways in the county, which it electrified from 1903. By 1933, it was the largest tram operator in the UK, with 167+ miles of route and 1,700+ tramcars.
    • 1885: the LCC was granted the power to compel the sale of land for housing development,[11] which was vital to the systematic rehousing that began under its early Progressive leadership. Housing of the Working Classes Act 1885

Metropolitan Board of Works

  • Dec.1855: MBoW: the Metropolitan Board of Works (aka the "Metropolitan Board of Perks" due to widespread corruption), was created to coordinate work to plan London, under the Metropolis Management Act 1855. Its principal responsibility was to provide infrastructure to cope with London's rapid growth. The MBoW took over the responsibilities of the Metropolitan Buildings Office and Metropolitan Commission of Sewers. The MBW consisted of 45 members, nominated by the mayor and the Corporation of the City of London, and principal local authorities specifically named in the Act.[12] It made most of its decisions in secret; in its last weeks, the number of handouts and perks plumbed new depths. The MBoW's first task was to oversee the construction of London's sewer system, drastically cutting the death rate as a result. Joseph Bazalgette was appointed as chief engineer to supervise public works.
    • 1878: The MBoW was granted the right to purchase and hold saleable rights in common lands in the Metropolis, in order to preserve the right of public access, under the Metropolitan Commons Act 1878.[13]
    • 1878-1899: Slum clearance schemes in central London led to 45,334 men, women and children being evicted. The slums were not cleared to benefit these people; they were cleared to get rid of them. The housing associations built new houses, but not for those who had been evicted; they were kept out by rules with which they couldn’t comply, and by rents they couldn’t pay.[14]
    • 1865: The MBoW became responsible for administering the Metropolitan Fire Brigade.[13]
  • 1848: MBO: the Metropolitan Buildings Office ... ToDo:
  • 1845: MCoS: the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers ... ToDo:

GLA Land & Property Ltd

  • Apr.2012: GLA Land & Property Ltd was formed as an arms-length corporate body to replace the London Development Agency, and to take over the assets of the LDA and other agencies, under the direction of the Mayor of London. Its principal activities are the purchase, sale and development of land or property, and the holding of land or property for capital growth or rental. It is one of the largest public sector landowners in London. [07911046 GLA Land & Property Ltd]OpenCorporates-sm.svg is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Greater London Authority Holdings Ltd,OpenCorporates-sm.svg which is itself a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Greater London Authority.
  • Jul.2000: The London Development Agency was created as the regional development agency for the London region in England by the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998 (Commencement No.2) Order 2000. It was a functional body of the § Greater London Authority, whose purpose was to drive sustainable economic growth within London. The agency was closed in Mar.2012 as a result of the Cons/LibDem (Cameron/Clegg)'s spending review cuts.[15] London Development AgencyWikipedia-W.svg,


  • Jun.03.2018: Sadiq Khan faces prospect of Tory rival amid growing pressure. Sadiq Khan faces the prospect of a Conservative challenger from Sept. at a time when there are concerns about knife crime, questions about Transport for London’s finances, and uncertainty about how far the capital’s mayor is able to address the housing crisis. Tony Travers, a professor at the London School of Economics, said: “The muddled nature of accountability for London policing, split between the mayor who sets budgets, the home secretary who provides money and decides policy, and the commissioner who handles operations, makes it hard for anybody to decide who has responsibility for crime in London. But it is the mayor who will end up taking the flak.” The mayor said he is not getting enough money from Central Govt for policing. Funding also looms over London’s transport budget. Khan’s election promise to freeze tube and bus fares, and introduce a single hopper fare for multiple bus journeys made within an hour has, according to Conservatives, blown a £640m hole in TfL’s finances. Meanwhile, bus and tube use in London is falling. Khan said TfL is “the only public transport system in the western world not supported financially by central govt” and blames Boris Johnson for agreeing with chancellor George Osborne to remove £700m of national subsidy. On the fare pledge, he said: “Eight years before I became mayor, TfL fares went up by 42%, we pay the highest public transport fares of any city in western Europe.” Private developers show little willingness to build large quantities of affordable homes: despite Khan’s objections, a govt-approved high-profile Sainsbury's development of 700 homes in Ilford included just 4% affordable housing. London boroughs are largely withdrawing from public-private regeneration projects after the collapse of Haringey’s controversial £4bn Haringey Development Vehicle scheme with Australian company Lendlease Corporation Ltd/Lendlease Europe Holdings Ltd.[16] Tories such as Gareth BaconWikipedia-W.svg, Leader of the London Assembly Conservative group, accuses Khan of repeatedly “finger pointing” at central govt. Khan remains the favourite to repeat his 56.8% win in May 2016 if he is reselected by the London Labour party over the next year. Dan Sabbagh.
  • Feb.22.2018: London Tories may lose third of town halls. The Conservatives face losing at least three of the nine London councils they control in May’s local elections, according to a poll that suggests a landslide defeat for the prime minister. Labour is on course to take more than half of the vote, according to a YouGov survey. Tory MPs privately acknowledge that the elections will be seen as a test of Theresa May’s leadership. Patrick Maguire, The Times.


  1. ^ Crossrail Bill 2005. Crossrail Ltd. Original archived on Aug.03.2009.
  2. ^ Soho shops make way for Crossrail. BBC News, Nov.13.2009.
  3. ^ Crossrail gets £230m BAA funding. Heathrow Airport operator BAA has announced a £230m funding package for the £16bn Crossrail project. BBC News, Nov.04.2008.
  4. ^ Crossrail project gets £1bn loan. BBC News, Sept.07.2009.
  5. ^ Sponsors and Partners. Crossrail Ltd. Original archived on Oct.25.2010.
  6. ^ House of Common Debate: London Residuary Body. Anthony Banks, MP for Newham North West, TheyWorkForYou, Dec.19.1986.
  7. ^ Company History. Workspace Group plc, accessdate=Jan.26.2021.
  8. ^ a b Inner London Education Authority. Administrative/Biographical history. AIM25 Archives, Jun.2009.
  9. ^ London Government. House of Lords Debate, cols. 278–291, Hansard, Mar.14.1962.
  10. ^ Streamlining the cities: Government proposals for reorganising local government in Greater London and the Metropolitan counties. British Official Publications Collaborative Reader Information Service, BOPCRIS, Oct.1983.
  11. ^ "London: A Social History.", Roy Porter, Harvard University Press, 1994, ISBN: 978-0140105933
  12. ^ Metropolitan Board of Works. London Metropolitan Archives. Accessed Jan.26.2021.
  13. ^ a b London Fire Brigade: The Way We Were. London Fire Brigade. Original archived on Jun.18.2008.
  14. ^ Life in 19th-century slums: Victorian London’s homes from hell. BBC HistoryExtra, Oct.26.2016.
  15. ^ Transition and closure. In June 2010 the Govt announced that the Regional Development Agencies, including the London Development Agency, were to be abolished by Mar.31.2012. London Development Agency, The National Archives, Jun.21.2011.
  16. ^ Momentum isn’t staging a coup in Haringey, this is about housing not Labour factions. Phil Jackson, The Independent, Nov.29.2017.