British American Tobacco plc

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British-American-Tobacco.svg
Corporate Political Engagement Rating[1]
Transparency International    C  

British American Tobacco (BAT) is a British multinational tobacco manufacturer and producer, with a 20.5% market share,[2017] headquartered in London. BAT has factories in 48 countries, and operations in ~180 countries, with sales throughout Europe and North Africa (24.5%), the USA (38.8%), Asia/Pacific and Middle East (19.9%), America and Sub-Saharan Africa (16.8%). In 2018, the group sold 708bn cigarettes; with revenues increasing by 25.2%.[2]:20

Skull-and-Crossbones-Tobacco.svg
BAT is completely aware of the damage its products have. Dr David O'Reilly, BAT's scientific director, displayed a diagram of 100 toxic chemicals and carcinogens produced when a cigarette is lit, including mercury, cadmium, lead, and carcinogens which smokers inhale. He stated: "For a lifetime smoker, ~50% can expect to die prematurely as a result."[3] But hey, profit$.

Corporate Political Engagement Rating:[1] Transparency International    C  

Brands

BAT owns a portfolio of 200+ brands.
  • Combustible tobacco products
  • Benson & Hedges
  • Camel (USA)
  • Dunhill
  • Kent
  • Kool
  • Lucky Strike
  • Natural American Spirit (USA)
  • Newport (USA)
  • Pall Mall
  • Rothmans
  • Potentially reduced-risk products
  • AR-2018, pp.17,34

Company

Shareholders


Total float: 92.8%
Source: MarketScreener.svg, Apr.2020

Holdings

  • 94.7% Pak Tobacco
  • 92.5% Bentoel Internasional Investama Tbk
  • 90.0% British American Tobacco Uganda Ltd
  • 84.1% Ceylon Tobacco Company plc
  • 60.0% British American Tobacco Kenya plc
  • 50.4% Carreras Limited
  • 43.1% British American Tobacc Zmbbw (Hldg) Ltd
  • 32.2% VST Industries Ltd
  • 29.4% ITC Ltd
  • 24.3% British American Tobacco Bangladesh Company Ltd

Timelines

ToDo: BAT Industries plc, CH, acq'd RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc.’, AR-2018. p.154: "Investments in associates and joint ventures"; p.186: "Business combinations, disposals and other changes in the Group"; p.212: "Interests in subsidiaries"; p.236: "Group companies and undertakings", RJ Reynolds: link, link, link, link, link, link, link, link, link, -link, Reynolds American Inc website, RJ Reynolds website, RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company website.arch+History+About+pdfs etc, RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc.arch+AR-2002, BAT.arch, BAT pdfs, BAT 2005, RJ Reynolds

[British American Tobacco Website]Archive-org-sm.svg, [Imperial Tobacco Website]Archive-org-sm.svg, bat.comArchive-org-sm.svg todo, Our history – a timeline, AR-2018, p.254 }}

British American Tobacco plc

The Group diversified its business, with acquisitions in the paper, cosmetics, retail and financial services industries, amongst others. Various business reorganisations followed as operations were refocused on the Group’s core cigarette, cigars and tobacco products businesses.

  • 2018: Quantus Beteiligungs und Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, which houses the vapour retail business of High End Smoke in Germany, was acquired.
  • Dec.2017: Twisp Propriety Ltd: agreed to acquire the South African e-cigarette/nicotine vapour company. Jul.2018: the South African Competition Commission recommended to the Competition Tribunal that the transaction be prohibited on the grounds that it would lessen the potential competition that would exist if BAT launched its own brand rather than acquired Twisp. BAT appealed, with a decision expected in 2019. Website
  • 2017: The Group also acquired Winnington Holdings AB in Sweden and certain assets from Must Have Ltd in the UK, including the electronic cigarette brand ViP.
  • 2017: the Group acquired certain tobacco assets from Bulgartabac Holding AD in Bulgaria and Fabrika Duhana Sarajevo in Bosnia.
  • 2017: the Group completed the acquisition of the remaining 57.8% of RAI it did not already own. Following completion of the acquisition, RAI became a wholly-owned indirect subsidiary of BAT, and was de-listed.
  • Nov.2016: Chic, a vapour product business in Poland, was acquired; BAT partnered with Reynolds American Inc for the purpose of sharing research whilst maintaining its direction in expanding beyond tobacco cigarettes.ref
  • 2016: the Group acquired Ten Motives, a UK-based e-cigarette business with particular strength in traditional grocery and convenience channels.
  • Oct.2015: TDR doo, a cigarette manufacturer in Croatia, and other tobacco and retail assets, was acquired from Adris Grupa dd.ref
  • Mar.2015: Souza Cruz: BAT acquired the 24.7% shares it did not already own, and delisted the company.ref The company has 6 of Brazil’s top 10 brands, including Derby, Hollywood, Free and Dunhill. BAT acquired a majority stake in 1914.
  • 2015: in connection with RAI’s purchase of Lorillard Inc, the Group invested US$4.7bn to maintain its ~42% equity position in the enlarged RAI.
  • Aug.2013: CTBAT International Ltd: BAT entered into a joint venture with China National Tobacco Corporation.ref
  • 2012: CN Creative Ltd, a UK-based start-up company specialising in the development of e-cigarette technologies, was acquired.
  • May.2011: Protabaco, a Colombian company (Productora Tabacalera de Tabacos SA), was acquired.ref
  • Jun.2009: Bentoel Group: BAT acquired a 60% stake in the Indonesian tobacco company (PT Bentoel Internasional Investama Tbk). An effective 99% interest was ref
  • 2008: Roger Award:Wikipedia-W.svg BAT "won" for having met the following criteria: being worst in each or all of the following: Economic Dominance: monopoly, profiteering, tax dodging, cultural imperialism. People: Unemployment, impact on tangata whenua, women, children, abuse of workers/conditions, health and safety of workers and the public, cultural imperialism. Environment: environmental damage, abuse of animals. Political interference: cultural imperialism, running an ideological crusade. ref ASH also made a presentation.ref
  • Feb.2008: Skandinavisk Tobakskompagni A/S: the cigarette and snus operations were acquired.ref,ref The company retained its cigar, pipe tobacco, rolling tobacco, and tobacco bits businesses.
  • Feb.2008: Tekel, Turkey's state-owned tobacco company, was won at auction. Turkey was the world's 8th largest cigarette market; the acquisition took BAT's market share from 7% to 36%.ref
  • Jan.2007: BAT closed its remaining UK production plant in Southampton with the loss of 600+ jobs. However, the global Research and Development operation and some financial functions continued on the site.ref
  • Jun.2006: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company announced that it would manufacture Camel brand snus in Sweden in partnership with British American Tobacco; the product would be test-marketed in Portland, Oregon and Austin, Texas by the end of the month.ref
  • Jul.2004: Reynolds American Inc: the USA assets, liabilities and operations, other than certain specified assets and liabilities, of BAT’s wholly-owned subsidiary Brown & Williamson, were combined with RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company. RAI was formed as a new holding company for these combined businesses. As a result of the combination, Brown & Williamson acquired beneficial ownership of approximately 42% of the RAI shares.
  • 2003: Investments were made in Peru and Serbia, through the acquisitions of Tabacalera Nacional and Duvanska Industrija Vranje.
  • Aug.2003: Duvanska Industrija Vranje: BAT acquired a 67.8% holding in the Serbian tobacco company, allowing local manufacture of its brands, freeing them from import duties.ref
  • 2003: Ente Tabacchi Italiani SpA, Italy’s state-owned tobacco company, was acquired.ref
  • 2002: Marlboro: BAT lost a lawsuit about the right to sell cigarettes under the Marlboro brand name in the UK. Rothmans had previously bought a licence to use the name from Philip Morris. Philip Morris' attorneys invoked a get-out clause for the case of a major change of ownership.ref
  • 2000: Imasco Ltd, Canada's dominant tobacco company, BAT already had a 41.5% shareholding; it purchased the remaining 58.5%, then amalgamated Imasco with Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd.
  • 2000: Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd was acquired. pic-link
  • Jun.1999: #Rothmans International plc, the 4th largest tobacco company in the world, was acquired,ref along with Rothmans' licence to use the name "Marlboro", purchased from Philip Morris in ??. The acquisition made British American Tobacco the world's 2nd-largest international tobacco company. Rothmans International BV was a subsidiary company of Swiss company Compagnie Financiere Richemont AG, and South African Rembrandt Group Ltd. Rothmans International BV was the 4th-largest international tobacco group, selling tobacco products in 160+ markets around the world.ref
  • Sept.1998: Zurich Financial Services Group: British American Financial Services merged with Zurich Insurance Company. BAT retained a minority interest in Zurich.ref,ref
  • 1998: BAT became a separately listed entity on the LSE.
  • 1998: British American Tobacco plc: BAT Industries Ltd spun off its remaining non-tobacco businesses into an independent company (name?), and changed its name.
  • Jul.1997: British American Tobacco plc was incorporated in the UK. OpenCorporates-sm.svg

BAT Industries plc

ToDo: link, BAT + Brown & Williamson
  • Jul.1998: Zurich Financial Services Ltd: BAT Industries plc and Zurich Insurance Company agreed to merge their financial services groups, forming a new company.[4] BAT's tobacco business was held by a separate publicly-traded holdco, British American Tobacco plc.
  • 1996: British American Financial Services: British American Tobacco merged its financial operations into a single operating unit.
  • 1995: Lorillard todo
  • Jan.1994: Threadneedle Asset Management Ltd was formed by merging the fund management arms of Allied Dunbar and Eagle Star, with Eagle Star Investment Managers Ltd being renamed to "Threadneedle Investment Managers Ltd".[5] History.archArchive-org-sm.svg
  • 1994: American Tobacco Company: BAT acquired its former parent, albeit reorganised after anti-trust proceedings. This brought the Lucky Strike and Pall Mall brands into BAT's portfolio.ref
  • 1994: BAT Industries commenced making major tobacco acquisitions.
  • 1990: Marshall Field's was sold to Dayton Hudson Corporation (now Target CorporationWikipedia-W.svg); Dillard'sWikipedia-W.svg purchased Ivey's (another Marshall Field's division); Investcorp SA purchased Saks Fifth Avenue.
  • 1990:
    Argos-1973.svgDeals-Arrow-Right.svg
    Argos was demerged from BAT Industries, and listed on the London Stock Exchange.
  • 1989: The company began selling off non-tobacco subsidiaries. BATUS Inc was shut down, with vestigial administrative operations being consolidated into Brown & Williamson.
  • 1989: Corporate raider James GoldsmithWikipedia-W.svg launched a hostile leveraged buyout, which brought BAT's diversification efforts to an abrupt end. To raise capital, BAT divested much of its USA operations, and re-focused the business.
  • Aug.1988: Farmers Group Inc, an American insurance management and holding company, was acquired, after an 8-month takeover battle.[6],ref,ref
  • 1986: Gimbels was put up for sale. 88 BAT USA retail stores were also divested, along with the West German Pegulan.
  • 1986: BATUS Inc sold two Marshall Field's divisions (The Crescent and Frederick & Nelson); closed Gimbels, with many locations being absorbed by sister division Marshall Field's, as well as Allied Stores' Stern's and Pomeroy's divisions.
  • 1986: Kohl’s Department Stores were sold, as its emphasis on "value oriented, bargain basement" marketing didn’t fit with BATUS’ other retail holdings.ref
  • 1985:
    Allied-Dunbar-horiz.svg
    Allied Dunbar: Hambro Life Assurance was acquired, and subsequently renamed as "Allied Dunbar".[7] todo
  • 1985: British American Cosmetics was sold to Beecham Group plc. Yardley of London,ref Lentheric Inc, ref
  • 1984: International Stores Ltd was sold to Dee Corporation plc (subsequently known as Somerfield).
  • Jan.1984: Eagle Star Insurance Company Ltd, a British insurance group, was acquired in a friendly takeover, rescuing it from the unwelcome advances of German firm Allianz.ref,ref
  • 1983: Kohl's Food Stores were sold to the Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company Inc (A&P). In 2003, A&P closed Kohl’s Food Stores.ref
  • Mar.1982: Marshall Field & Company, together with its divisions The Crescent and Frederick & Nelson, was acquired by BATUS Inc.[8]
  • Jul.1981: BAT Industries plc: the company re-registered itself as a public company.Cert
  • 1979:
    Argos-1973.svgDeals-Arrow-Left.svg
    Argos, the UK retail chain, was acquired from its founder, Ian MacLaurin.ref
  • 1978: Kohl’s Food & Department Stores: BATUS Inc purchased an 80% stake, taking control of the company.ref
  • 1978: Appleton Paper Company was acquired,[8] establishing BATUS Inc as the world leader in the manufacture of carbonless paper. Also acquired were Pegulan, a large home-improvements company in West Germany; and two fruit juice companies in Brazil.
  • Jul.1976: BAT Industries Ltd: the group's companies were reorganised under a new holding company,ref with the operations of British-American Tobacco Company Ltd and Tobacco Securities Trust Company Ltd being merged.AR-Sept.1976
  • 1972: International Stores Ltd: International Tea Company Stores Ltd was acquired by BAT Industries plc, who changed its name.[9]

British American Tobacco Company

OpenCorporates-sm.svg + OpenCorporates-sm.svg

British American Tobacco Ltd

  • Jun.1973: Gimbel Brothers, Inc, a chain of department stores and Saks Fifth Avenue specialty stores, was acquired via Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation.[10] GimbelsWikipedia-W.svg
  • 197?: Supermerca dos Peg‐Pag SA in Brazil (36 supermarkets); International stores in Britain (934 supermarkets and grocery stores); Saks Fifth Avenue acqd by BATUS Inc.
  • ~1968: Horten AG, a chain of 50 department stores in West Germany, was acquired by BAT. AG#Die Trennung Helmut Hortens von seiner Kaufhauskette Horten AG#Die Trennung Helmut Hortens von seiner Kaufhauskettelink=https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horten AG#Die Trennung Helmut Hortens von seiner Kaufhauskette
  • 1978: Kohl Corporation, with 70 supermarkets, department and drug stores in the American Middle West, was acquired by Batus Inc (80% stake).[11] Kohl'sWikipedia-W.svg
  • 1974: Cyclax, one of the world's oldest cosmetic companies, was acquired by British American Cosmetics from Cooper Laboratories Inc.ref,ref CyclaxWikipedia-W.svg, Website
  • ?date?: BATUS Inc (British American Tobacco – US) was established by Brown & Williamson as a holdco for its USA retail holdings.
  • Feb.1970: British-American Cosmetics: BAT created a separate division for its cosmetic companies, Yardley, Morny, Germaine Monteil, Juvena, Lenthéric, Scandia Cosmetics International and Tuvaché.[12],[13][14]
  • Mar.1967: Yardley of London Ltd was acquired from the Gardner family and their associates.ref,ref
  • 1967:
    Flag-Tanzania.svg
    the Govt of Tanzania acquired a 60% stake in East African Tobacco from British American Tobacco, as part of Tanzania’s Nationalisation program (the Ujamaa Movement). The remaining 40% was acquired in 1975.[15]:11
  • 1967: Lentheric Inc, a manufacturer of perfumes, cosmetics, toilet preparations, hair spray, and shampoo, was acquired from ?? by British-American Cosmetics.ref Lenthéric had acquired Morny Frères Ltd in 1965. Lenthéric and Morny products were integrated with Yardley’s.[16]
  • Dec.1961:
    Flag-Tanzania.svg
    East African Tobacco was established, 5 days before Tanzania became independent from Great Britain.[15]:11
  • 1962: Mardon Packaging International, a cigarette packaging firm formed from five smaller packaging companies, and Wiggins Teape Ltd, a large speciality paper manufacturer, minority interests were acquired. Later, both became wholly-owned subsidiaries.
  • ?date?: Germaine Monteil were acquired.
  • 1960s-1980s: Diversification: the group made acquisitions in the paper, cosmetics, retail and financial services industries, perfume houses and department stores, amongst others. Various reorganisations followed as the business was eventually refocused on the Group’s core cigarette, cigars and tobacco products businesses.
  • 1956: Benson & Hedges: BAT obtained Benson & Hedges (Overseas) Ltd, established in the 1930s to handle international trade.
  • 1949:
    Flag-China.svg
    China: the company was ejected following the foundation of the People's Republic of ChinaWikipedia-W.svg; all of BAT China's assets were nationalised.
  • 1941:
    Flag-Japan.svg
    Japan: the company's assets were seized by the Japanese following their 1937 invasionWikipedia-W.svg.
  • 1932:
    Flag-Germany.svg
    Haus Bergmann in Germany was acquired.
  • 1927: Brown & Williamson, a small tobacco producer in North Carolina, was acquired, enabling BAT's expansion into the USA market for the first time.
  • 1925: Ardath Tobacco's overseas business, which owned the State Express brand rights, was acquired. (ToDo)
  • 1923: The company began decentralising its operations in China and other international operations.
  • 1921: Cigarrera Bigott Sucs was formed in Venezuela
  • 1914-1918: World War I saw cigarettes take a substantial market share, displacing the pipe and plug.
  • 1914: Souza Cruz: BAT acquired a majority stake in the Brazilian company. Souza Cruz was founded in 1903 by Portuguese immigrant Albino Souza Cruz, who transferred control of the firm to BAT.ref
  • 1913: Bozetti & Co, a local tobacco manufacturer in Argentina, was acquired.
  •  ??.1911: British-American Tobacco Company Ltd was listed on the London Stock Exchange; James Duke remained as Chairman until 1923.
  •  ??.1911: The American Tobacco Company was indicted in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, and subsequently canceled most of its covenants with British American Tobacco and Imperial Tobacco Company, and sold all of its shares in British American Tobacco Ltd, with the majority being bought by British investors. Imperial Tobacco gradually reduced its shareholding between 19??-1980.[17]:32,33
  • 1908: Expansion into Finland, Indonesia and East Africa.
  • 1908: Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada: BAT bought out the Canadian interests of the #American Tobacco Company.ref See also Imperial Tobacco CanadaWikipedia-W.svg and Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada LtdWikipedia-W.svg.
  • 1904-1906: Expansion: into the West Indies (1904); India, Ceylon and Egypt (1905); Holland, Belgium, Sweden and Norway (1906).
  • Sept.1902: British American Tobacco Ltd was founded as a joint venture between the UK's Imperial Tobacco Company (33.3%) and the USA's #American Tobacco Company (66.6%), in a bid to end an intense trade war. The non-domestic operations of each company, plus the rights to use the other's brands and trade marks at home, were transferred to the new company,[18] as well as each others export business and overseas production operations.

Fortune Brands Inc

  • Oct.2011: Fortune Brands split its remaining businesses into two publicly-traded companies:
    • Fortune Brands Home & Security Inc was endowed with the non-liquor operations, including brands such as Master Lock, American Lock, MasterBrand cabinets, Fypon, Moen faucets, Simonton windows and Therma-Tru entry door systems.[1] fbhs.com
    • Beam Inc was formed from the remainder of Fortune Brands, as a business focused exclusively on spirits and directly-related products.[2] Beam Inc managed to stay independent until Apr.2014, when Suntory Holdings Ltd, a Japanese group of brewers & distillers, acquired it.[3]
  • Dec.2010: Pure-Play Spirits: Fortune Brands announced that it would focus on its liquor business Beam Global Spirits & Wine Inc, and spin off or sell the Home & Security (home furnishings), Master Lock (hardware), and Acushnet Company (golf products) businesses.[4],[5]
  • Dec.2007: The Wine operations were sold to Constellation Brands Inc. The transaction included five wineries and vineyards in some of California's finest wine growing regions, fine wines such as Clos du Bois, Wild Horse and Geyser Peak, 2.6m cases per year of "super-premium" class wine production and an experienced team of wine business professionals.[19]
  • 2005: Jim Beam Brands Worldwide Inc, formerly "Jim Beam Brands Company", was acquired.[6] In 2006, the company was renamed as "Beam Global Spirits & Wine Inc".
  • ?dates?: Acquisitions: Hanes & Brown of Winston; Beck of Chicago; Scotten-Dillon of Detroit; Bollman of San Francisco.
  • 2004: #RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company took over Brown & Williamson.
  • 1999: British American Racing, a Formula One constructor that competed in the sport between 1999-2005, was established. todo, piclink
  • 1997: Fortune Brands:

American Brands Inc

  • May.1997: Gallaher Group plc: Gallaher Ltd was demerged from American Brands, and its shares listed on the London Stock Exchange; its ADRs were listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • 1995: Brown & Williamson took over the Reidsville, North Carolina operation and closed it, costing 1000 jobs.
  • 1994: #Brown & Williamson, a subsidiary of British American Tobacco, purchased American Brands' tobacco operations.
  • Apr.1994: #BAT Industries plc purchased the American Tobacco Company from American Brands Inc, acquiring an extra 7% market share in the USA to add to its 11%.ref Brands: Lucky Strike, Pall Mall and Tareyton cigarettes.ref (Note: BAT owned Brown & Williamson at this point.) The sale marked the start of American Brands' exit from the lawsuit-plagued Tobacco Industry.ref
  • 1970s-1980s: American Brands acquired a variety of non-tobacco businesses.
  • 1969: American Brands Inc: the company restructured itself, forming a holding company which operated the American Tobacco Company as one of its subsidiaries. In recognition of its changing profile, a new name was chosen.
ToDo: piclink, piclink, link, todo: National Tobacco Company / Swedish Match / Wallenberg / Wilkinson Sword / Universal Match / Volvo, todo, todo, todo, todo

American Tobacco Company (Mk3)

  • 1962: J Wix & Sons Ltd was sold to Gallaher Ltd in exchange for a 13% stake in Gallaher's stock. By 1968, American Tobacco had increased its holdings in Gallaher to 67%, giving it a controlling interest. In 1975, the shareholding had increased to 100%.[20]:12
  • 1960s: American Tobacco Company began to diversify, moving into other fields, including distilled spirits, life insurance, office supplies, cosmetics, and hardware.
  • 1947: Hunters & Frankau Ltd's mass-market cigar business was acquired.[21]
  • 1928: J Wix & Sons Ltd, London-based makers of Kensitas cigarettes, was acquired from members of the Wix family, marking American Tobacco's re-entry into the UK market. [22]:30
  • 1912: Tobacco Products Corporation was formed by the merger of smoking tobacco manufacturer Surbrug Company, and cigarette manufacturer Khedivial Company, both bought by the Butler brothers (see 1901: Universal Tobacco Company). Tobacco Products later acquired Philip Morris' New York City branch.
  • 1911: Oligopoly: per the Supreme Court's ruling in Jul.1907, American Tobacco Company's assets were split up; the main result was was an increase in advertising and promotion in the industry as a form of competition.[17]:42 IOW, the antitrust action destroyed the near monopoly, replacing it with an oligopoly.
    • a smaller, reorganised, American Tobacco Company (Mk3);
    • Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company;
    • P Lorillard;
    • RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company: control had to be relinquished.[17]:41
    • American Tobacco Company sold its shares in British American Tobacco Ltd to British investors.

American Tobacco Company (Mk2)

  • Jul.1907: Monopoly: the American Tobacco Company was indicted in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act; the company appealed all the way to the Supreme Court, but finally lost in 1911, when the Supreme Court ordered the company to dissolve.[17]:39,[23]:253 See United States v. American Tobacco Co.Wikipedia-W.svg
  • 1905: RA Patterson of Richmond, Virginia, manufacturer of the Lucky Strike brand, was acquired. Patterson began in 1853 as a smoking tobacco mixture.[22]:5,piclink,piclink Lucky StrikeWikipedia-W.svg
  • 1905: Butler & Butler Tobacco Company was acquired. The firm was formed in 1904 from the remains of the Universal Tobacco Company, incorporated in New Jersey in Nov.1901 by brothers William H Butler and George P Butler.[24]
  • Oct.1904: American Tobacco Company: after the Northern Securities Co. v. United StatesWikipedia-W.svg case, the Consolidated Tobacco holdco was scrapped, and Consolidated Tobacco Company, Continental Tobacco Company, and American Tobacco Company were merged - but the new structure failed dismally to bring immunity from prosecution.

Consolidated Tobacco Company

  • 1902: Havana Tobacco Company: the Havana Commercial Company, Henry Clay & Bock Tobacco Company, and H de Cabanas y Carbajol Company, the 3 largest companies dealing in Cuban cigars and tobaccos, were acquired by the American Tobacco Company, which incorporated a new holdco in New Jersey.(Tobacco Trust in Cuba. New York Times, May 29, 1902.)(?Rival for Tobacco Trust. New York Times, Jan. 25, 1902.?)
  • Sept.1902: British American Tobacco Ltd, a joint venture between the UK's Imperial Tobacco Company (33%) and the USA's American Tobacco Company (66%), was founded with the non-domestic operations of each company. Each also acquired the rights to use the other's brands and trade marks at home.[18]
  • 1901:
    Flag-UK.svg
    Ogdens Ltd: the acquisition of the Liverpudlian tobacco manufacturer was the starting flag for competitive warfare in the UK market. Ogdens was acquired to get around the high tariff walls which had kept American Tobacco out of the UK,[25] and with the avowed intent of "capturing the English and European trade".ref:16 The English response was immediate, with 13 firms combining as the Imperial Tobacco Company, with lowered prices, and a vigorous "Don't Buy American" campaign.[26]
  • 1901: The Consolidated Tobacco Company was formed as a holdco for the American Tobacco Company and the Continental Tobacco Company.[27] The American Snuff Company and the American Cigar Company were also added in later.[28] The character of ownership in the industry had been transformed, with financial tycoons in charge rather than tobacco men.

American Tobacco Company (Mk1)

  • 1901: The American Cigar Company was established to "manufacture, sell, and distribute cigars, stogies, and cheroots", with the cigar businesses of Powell, Smith & Company, large manufacturers and dealers in cigars; American Tobacco Company; and the Continental Tobacco Company. American Cigar went on to acquire many competitors, and established corporations to acquired competing manufacturers, jobbers, and distributors in the USA, Cuba, and Porto Rico. Nevertheless, it never achieved more than 16% of the USA's cigar trade, although it did become its largest manufacturer.
  • 1900: #American Snuff Company: the same tactics which were used in the Plug Wars were applied, culminating in the merger of the George W Helme Snuff Company; the snuff manufacturing branches of the American Tobacco Company (August Beck Company of Chicago; and the Gail & Ax Company of Baltimore); likewise of the Continental Tobacco Company (P Lorillard Company; the Atlantic Snuff Company, which included WE Garrett & Sons; Stuart Ralph Company; Brunton & Conlon; the Dental Snuff Company; the Southern Snuff Company; and the Bowers Company).[29]
  • 1899: Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company was acquired, two years after its owner John Edmund Liggett died. Liggett GroupWikipedia-W.svg
  • 1899: RJ Reynolds Tobacco: a 66% interest was acquired.[22]:25
  • 1899: P Lorillard Tobacco Company, founded in 1760 by tobacconist's apprentice Pierre Lorillard with a snuff-grinding factory in a rented house in Manhattan,[30] was acquired.[31] Lorillard Tobacco CompanyWikipedia-W.svg, more,more,more,more,more, more, more, piclinks, lorillard.comArchive-org-sm.svg, lorillard.netArchive-org-sm.svg
  • Dec.1898: Continental Tobacco Company was formed by American Tobacco's various plug businesses, together with the major independent plug producers.[32][32] The plants, assets, and businesses of 5 large and successful competing plug manufacturers were taken over:
    • PJ Sorg Company of Middletown;
    • John Finzer & Brothers of Louisville;
    • Daniel Scotten & Company of Detroit;
    • PH Mayo & Bros;
    • John Wright Company.
    • Jul.1899: Union Tobacco Company was the largest competitor brought in.[33][34] It was set up in Oct.1898 by a group of New York financiers to exploit Duke's thirst for acquisitions.[32][22]:22 Union Tobacco had taken over the National Cigarette & Tobacco Company of New York; bought control of Blackwell's Durham Tobacco Company;[35] and had an option on an interest in Liggett & Meyers. American Tobacco Company's plug tobacco businesses were also transferred in (at very large valuations):[36]
    • Feb.1891: National Tobacco Works of Louisville, famous for its Piper Heidsieck plug tobacco, was acquired.[37] National Tobacco Works was formed in Jan.1891 by the incorporation of the partnership of Pfingst, Doerhoefer & Company, manufacturers of plug tobacco in Louisville, Kentucky.[36]
    • James G Butler Tobacco Company;
    • Oct.1898: Drummond Tobacco Company, a St Louis, Missouri firm dealing primarily in plug tobacco, was acquired by the Continental Tobacco Company.[36] Drummond was founded by James Thomas Drummond in ?date?.[32]
    • Brown Tobacco Company.
  • 1890s: Plug Wars: American Tobacco used its economic size to force plug manufacturers to combine with it, by drastically undercutting prices.
  • Feb.1891-Oct.1898: Price Wars & Acquisitions: 15 going concerns doing business in the states of Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, and Virginia were acquired. In Apr.1891 alone, GW Gail & Ax of Baltimore, manufacturers and sellers of smoking tobacco; Marburg Bros of Baltimore, Maryland, manufacturers and distributors of tobacco, principally smoking and snuff; and Philip Whitlock Company of Richmond, Virginia, a manufacturer of cheroots and cigars, were all acquired.[38] If American Tobacco's suit was rebuffed, it spitefully wreaked havoc by lowering prices until its competitors either came to terms, or were forced into bankruptcy - at which point they could be picked up for a song.[22]:22

  • http://www.imperialtobaccocanada.com/Wikipedia-W.svg, wholly-owned subsidiary of British American Tobacco plc.
  • ?date?: Imperial Tobacco’s products are manufactured at BAT Mexico’s factory in Monterrey.
  • 2003: Restructure: the Montréal plant, in operation since 1907, was closed. The green leaf threshing plant in Aylmer, Ontario was closed. The reconstituted tobacco operations were phased out.
  • Nov.2000: ST Cigar Group Holding BV, Scandinavian Tobacco Group A/S, a Danish cigar producer, purchased all Imperial Tobacco Canada's cigar trademarks, including Colts, Old Port, House of Lords and Reas. The sale followed a strategic decision to fully concentrate its activities on the cigarette business.
  • Feb.2000: Imperial Tobacco Ltd became part of the British American Tobacco Group. This followed the earlier overwhelming support by Imasco shareholders for a special resolution permitting the sale of the remaining 58.5% of Imasco shares not already owned by the Group. Imperial Tobacco Canada has since carried on its business activities under the name of Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd.
  • ?date?: United Cigar Stores Ltd, a 200-chain of retail outlets across Canada.
  • ?date?: Beau Chatel Wines Ltd of Ontario, formerly Welland Winery Ltd, was acquired.
  • 1970: Imasco Ltd (Imperial and Associated Companies): Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada Ltd was reorganised and renamed, with Imperial Tobacco Ltd becoming a subsidiary. Imasco operated in the following areas: tobacco, pharmacies, financial services and real estate. Tobacco products, however, still accounted for a major portion of total Imasco revenues. Imperial Tobacco manufactured a range of tobacco products, including cigars, cigarillos, fine cut, and cigarettes.
  •  ??-??: Over the years the company expanded into areas beyond the tobacco industry – a diversification which dictated certain changes in corporate structure.
  • 1994: ITL (USA) Ltd, an American subsidiary, was opened.
  • 1964: Canada Foils Ltd, the first and largest converter of foils in Canada, was acquired.ref
  • 1949: Newfoundland’s Imperial Tobacco Company Ltd was acquired.
  • 1942: LO Grothé was acquired.
  • 1930: The Tuckett Tobacco Co. Ltd was acquired.ref Tuckett Tobacco was founded in 1857 in Hamilton, Ontario as Tuckett & Billings. Subsid: Tobacco Products Company of Canada Ltd and Philip Morris Co. Ltd.
  • 1921: General Cigar Company, which included the long-established firm of S Davis & Son, was acquired. Production of snuff and chewing tobacco ended with the sale of the National Tobacco Co.
  • Apr.1912: Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada Ltd was incorporated. The company manufactured cigarettes, smoking and chewing tobaccos, snuff and little cigars but no large cigars.
  • Jun.1908: Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada was formed by the jointly-owned British American Tobacco Company Ltd to buy out American Tobacco Company's Canadian interests.ref,[3],[10],ref
  • 1907: National Snuff Company was formed as a joint venture between the American Tobacco Company (50%) and the American Snuff Company of New York (50%). It later became the National Tobacco Company. In 1986, Imperial Tobacco Ltd sold the shares it owned in National Tobacco Company to the United States Tobacco Company, which continues supplying Canadian consumers with smokeless tobacco products.
  • 1903: B Houde Company of Québec, founded in 1840, specialised in pipe tobacco made of “tabac canadien” grown in the Joliette district.
  • 1899: Bought 80% of the shares of Empire Tobacco Company located in Granby. Empire Tobacco's subsidiary La Compagnie de Tabac de Joliette, which operated an agricultural plant in Joliette, located north of Montréal, came along too.
  • 1899: Léon Larue Jr, a firm which specialised in snuff manufacturing, was acquired.
  • 1898: Empire Tobacco Company Ltd of Granby was acquired.
  • Sept.1895: American Tobacco Company of Canada Ltd: the #American Tobacco Company entered the Canadian market by forming a new holdco for its recent acquisitions: the American Cigarette Company, and D Ritchie & Company, both Montreal-based. At the time, it controlled 80% of the Canadian cigarette market and 60% of the chewing tobacco, pipe tobacco, and snuff market.ref
Additional Sources: History of the Imperial Tobacco Canada. Ogdens Cards, Card World, Nov.03.2016.
  • 1890-1907: Acquisitions: Between them, American Tobacco and Continental Tobacco absorbed ~250 companies,[39] producing 80% of the cigarettes, plug and smoking tobacco, and snuff produced in the USA.[40]:59[17]:34 By 1904, Duke had absorbed even his largest competitors: #RJ Reynolds, WT Blackwell Company (Bull Durham Smoking TobaccoWikipedia-W.svg,[22]:18), and FR Penn of Reidsville, leading to American Tobacco owning over 80% of the US tobacco market by 1906.
  • ?dates?: Consolidation & International Expansion: Vertical consolidation, which controlled leaf suppliers, warehouses, box and foil manufacturers, and distributors. The company expanded to Great Britain, China, and Japan.[17]:35-37
  • Jan.1890: The American Tobacco Company was incorporated as a holdco for the consortium members, and listed on the New York Stock Exchange. That year, it produced ~97% of the cigarettes made in the USA.[36]

W Duke, Sons & Company

  • late.1880s: Combination: oversupply in the industry, coupled with declining growth rates, had led to ferocious internecine competition, with bizarre advertising campaigns and ever-lower prices. James Duke's solution was to persuade companies to combine,[40]:59 in much the same manner as FW Woolworth was doing. After much negotiating, the competitors agreed.[23]:85,[17],32–33 The founding members were: Allen & Ginter of Richmond, Virginia; W Duke, Sons & Company of Durham, N.C.; #Kinney Tobacco Company of New York; WS Kimball & Company of Rochester, New York; and Goodwin & Company of Brooklyn, New York.[41]
  • 1884: James Duke secretly contracted with the Bonsack Machine Company to rent two machines to produce all his cigarettes and, in return, Bonsack reduced Drake's royalties by 6¢ per 1,000, resulting in Duke undercutting his competitors' prices,[17]:19 helped along by a reduction in govt tax from $1.75 to 50¢ per 1,000. Before the end of the decade, Duke had gained exclusive control of the Bonsack machine.[42]:68
  • 1881: Bonsack Machine Company: James Bonsack invented a cigarette-rolling machine which produced 200+ cigarettes per minute, compared to one hour by hand, reducing the cost of rolling cigarettes by 50%. Leading firms Allen & Ginter, Kimball's and Goodwin rejected the machine, over concerns that their customers wouldn't like machine-made products.[17]:27,28 James Duke, however, embraced the technology.[42]:68
  • 1881: James Buchanan Duke, Washington Duke's son, brought a factory manager and skilled hand-rollers from New York, and started looking "outside the box" for ways to beat his competitors.
  • 1878: W Duke, Sons & Company: the fledgling company was formally organised as a partnership, between Washington Duke, James Duke and his brother Benamin N Duke, Richard Wright, and businessman George W Watts, each contributing $14,000.[42]:63
  • 1866: W Duke & Sons turned out 15,000 lbs of Pro Bono Publico in their first full year.[22]:19
  • 1865: Pro Bono Publico: After Confederate soldier Washington Duke, from Durham, North Carolina, was released from prison, he found a ready market for his small supply of "Bright" tobacco leaf.[22]:17

Kinney Tobacco Company

  • 1890: #American Tobacco Company was formed by 5 firms, including Kinney Tobacco Company.[Brandt, Allan M. The Cigarette Century: The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America. New York: Perseus Books Group, 2009.]:34
  • 1870s: Big Six: Kinney Tobacco Company, Allen & Ginter, Goodwin & Company, WS Kimball & Company, Marburg Brothers & Company, and FW Felgner & Son Company jointly controlled 75% of the national cigarette business.Richard Elliott, The Early History of Cigarettes in America, Brandstand, Vol 34, Spring 2009. Kinney launched the Sweet Caporal brand in 1878.
  • ?date?: Kinney Brothers Tobacco Company: Francis Kinney was joined in business by his brother, Abbot Kinney.
  • Francis Kinney channeled his energies into the mass production of cigarettes in his factories.[Brandt, Allan M. The Cigarette Century: The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America. New York: Perseus Books Group, 2009.]:26
  • 1873-1879: Cigarette production in the USA took off, rising from 28m to 371m.
  • 1869: Francis S Kinney, a tobacco manufacturer, started experimenting with hand-rolled cigarettes.[40][Patrick G. Porter. Origins of the American Tobacco Company, The Business History Review, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Spring, 1969), pp. 59-76.]

Reynolds American Inc

Reynolds American is an American tobacco company which is a subsidiary of British American Tobaccoref and is the second-largest tobacco company in the United States.ref Its holdings include RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, American Snuff Company, Santa Fe Natural Tobacco Company, and Niconovum AB.

Reynolds American's subsidiaries manufacture and market a variety of tobacco products, including cigarettes (Newport, Camel, Pall Mall, Kent, Doral, Misty, Capri, and Natural American Spirit brands) and moist snuff (Grizzly and Kodiak brands).[7]


  • Jul.2017: #British American Tobacco purchased the outstanding 57.8% of Reynolds American that it did not already own.21,ref
  • Jun.2014: #Lorillard Tobacco Company was acquired.ref The transaction included the divestiture of certain RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company and Lorillard Tobacco Company brands and assets - Winston, Salem, KOOL, Maverick and blue Cigs - to ITG Brands LLC, a subsidiary of Imperial Tobacco Group plc.ref
  • Dec.2009: Niconovum AB, a Swedish maker of products such as nicotine gum, was acquired.ref,ref
  • May.2006: Conwood Company LP, the 2nd-biggest smokeless tobacco company in the USA, was acquired.ref Conwood manufactured and marketed moist and dry snuff, loose leaf, plug, and twist chewing tobaccos.
  • Jul.2004: Reynolds American Inc: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc completed the merger of RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company and the USA operations of British American Tobacco, operating under the name of #Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company, following shareholder and regulatory approval. As part of the transaction, Cigarette Manufacturers Supplies Inc was acquired from a BAT subsidiary which owned Lane Ltd. Lane manufactured and distributed cigars, roll-your-own, cigarette and pipe tobacco brands, including Dunhill and Captain Black tobacco products. BAT retained the rights to use the BAT trademarks outside the USA.ref RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc was renamed, and began trading on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • Oct.2003: Reynolds American Inc: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc (58%) and British American Tobacco plc (42%) agreed to combine the assets and operations of their respective USA businesses (RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company and Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, 2nd- and 3rd-largest USA tobacco companies) to form a new, publicly-traded, holding company.
ToDo: logo, History, link, link, link, link, link, link, link, link, link, link, link

RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc

  • Jun.1999: Sale of domestic operations: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc/RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, the domestic tobacco subsidiary, was spun-off to shareholders in a stock distribution.ref,ref
  • RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc: RJR Nabisco Inc was renamed, becoming an independent, publicly-traded company, with RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company as its wholly-owned subsidiary.[ref, p.9]
  • May.1999: Sale of international operations: Japan Tobacco Inc purchased RJ Reynolds International, RJR Nabisco's non-USA tobacco operations, forming Japan Tobacco International.ref, logo The sale included the international rights to the Camel, Winston and Salem cigarette brands.ref Consequently, any Camels, Winstons or Salems sold outside the USA are now actually Japanese cigarettes.
  • Apr.1999: The Dorchester and Dickens & Grant businesses were sold to Gallaher Group plc, together with the rights to use the Benson & Hedges trademark in Spain. The transaction included a distribution agreement for Camel and More brands in the UK.AR-2000:8
  • Mar.1991: RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation became a publicly traded stock again.ref
  • Apr.1989: Kohlberg Kravis Roberts acquired RJR Nabisco after a bidding war. KKR cut jobs and divisions, shuffled operations and businesses,ref and flogged off bits to the highest bidders.
  • Apr.1986: RJR Nabisco Inc: RJ Reynolds Industries Inc was renamed.ref See main article RJR Nabisco Inc.

RJ Reynolds Industries Inc

  • Sept.1985: Nabisco Brands Inc was acquired in a friendly takeover.ref Nabisco had sought the merger partly to avoid hostile takeover attempts, whilst Reynolds was interested in diversification, because tobacco litigation was proving expensive.ref
  • 1982: Heublein Inc was acquired.
  • 1979: Del Monte Foods was acquired.
  • 1970: RJ Reynolds Industries Inc: the company changed its name to reflect its growing diversification, with RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company becoming a subsidiary.[6]

RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company

  • 1969: Sea-Land Service Inc, a pioneering shipping and containerisation company,[43] was acquired. In 1984, Sea-Land was spun off.[44] (Owned by AP Møller–Mærsk AS since )
  • 1962: Pacific Hawaiian Products Company, makers of Hawaiian Punch, was purchased; it became a subsidiary of Del Monte Foods in 1981.
  • ?date?: RJ Reynolds Tobacco started diversifying into other areas.
  • 1918: Reynolds' brother William Neal Reynolds took over following Reynolds' death. By that time, Reynolds Company was one of the most profitable corporations in the world.[45]
  • 1900s: Reynolds bought up most of the competing tobacco factories in Winston-Salem. The company was producing ~25% of the USA's chewing tobacco.[45]
  • Oct.1874: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company: RJ Reynolds, the son of a Virginian tobacco farmer, sold his shares in his father's company in Patrick County, Virginia, and moved to Winston-Salem, the nearest town with a railroad connection, to start his own tobacco company.[46]

American Snuff Company

piclinks, American Snuff CompanyWikipedia-W.svg, Website, americansnuff.comArchive-org-sm.svg, Brands

  • 2010: American Snuff Company LLC: the company was renamed, as a tribute to its heritage.
  • ?date?: Lane Ltd, a subsidiary of Reynolds American, was combined with Conwood to consolidate and drive the companies' portfolio of other tobacco products.ref Lane marketed a wide range of specialty tobacco products, including cigars and little cigars; roll-your-own and pipe tobaccos; and Dunhill and other premium international cigarettes.ref
  • Apr.2006: Conwood Holdings Inc was incorporated by #Reynolds American Inc to act as Conwood Company LP's holdco. OpenCorporates-sm.svg
  • 1985: Conwood Company LP: American Snuff was sold to the Pritzker familyWikipedia-W.svg of Chicago, Illinois. (? Conwood Company LLC ?)
  • 1967: Scott Tobacco Company, a manufacturer of hand-rolled twist chewing tobacco in Bowling Green, Kentucky, was acquired.
  • Oct.1966: Conwood Corporation: to reflect American Snuff's diversification, the company's name was changed. OpenCorporates-sm.svg
  • 1961: Blevins Popcorn Company was acquired.[47]
  • 1957: Hot Shot insect repellent was acquired; the company expanded Hot Shot sales from $400,000 to ~$4,000,000 in only two years. Hot Shot uses CyhalothrinWikipedia-W.svg, a now-restricted use pesticide. (Hot Shot is now owned by Spectrum Brands.)
  • 1952: Taylor Brothers Tobacco Company of Winston-Salem, North Carolina, was acquired. Founded by William B Taylor in 1883, Taylor Brothers manufactured plug, twist and loose leaf chewing tobacco.
  • 1912-1952: American Snuff made nothing but snuff, constantly improving and refining production methods to reduce labour, energy and transportation cost.
  • 1907: After Theodore Roosevelt broke up the American Tobacco Company for violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, American Snuff Co was divided into three smaller companies, based on specific brands:
    • a smaller American Snuff Company:
    • Weyman and Burton (now US Tobacco):
    • George W Helm.
  • 1900: The American Snuff Company was formed by the merger of the George W Helme Snuff Company; the snuff manufacturing operations of the American Tobacco Company (August Beck Company of Chicago; and the Gail & Ax Company of Baltimore); likewise of the Continental Tobacco Company (P Lorillard Company; the Atlantic Snuff Company, which included WE Garrett & Sons; Stuart Ralph Company; Brunton & Conlon; the Dental Snuff Company; the Southern Snuff Company; and the Bowers Company).[29]
  • Mar.1900: the American Snuff Company, via the Atlantic Snuff Company, took over the Snuff businesses of the P Lorillard Company, Continental Company, and the American Tobacco Company. The new company held: Atlantic Snuff Company; P Lorillard Company; the American Tobacco Company; Continental Tobacco Company.

Among the assets transferred by the Atlantic Snuff Company to American Snuff Company were WE Garrett & Sons Inc, which controlled the Southern Snuff Company of Memphis, Tennessee; Dental Snuff Company of Lynchburg, Virginia; and Stewart-Ralph Snuff Company of Clarksville, Tennessee. The separate existence of WE Garrett & Sons Inc was been preserved and its business conducted under the corporate name. In Mar.1900, American Snuff Company acquired all the shares of George W Helme Company of Helmetta, New Jersey. In December, 1899, the American Tobacco Company secured control of the business of John Conley & Sons, a partnership of New York City. The Conley Foil Company has acquired all the shares of stock of the Johnson Tinfoil & Metal Company, of St. Louis, a leading competitor.

  • ?1894: The Atlantic Snuff Company was formed by the merger of WE Garrett & Sons with two Virginia and Tennessee companies, orchestrated by Henry D Moore and partner George B Wilson, who had acquired a controlling interest in WE Garrett & Sons.[48]

the Atlantic Snuff Company, which included Brunton & Conlon (??); and the Bowers Company (?Bowers Lighter Co.?)


page 221 U.S.168

  • Mar.1900: The American Snuff Company was formed, and took over the snuff business of the P Lorillard Company,

from American Tobacco Company's snuff holdings, which comprised the George W Helme Company, the Atlantic Snuff Company, Bruton & Condon, and Ivy Owen & Company. ? and the United States Tobacco Company.

  • ?date?:
  • Mar.1900: George W Helme Company of Helmetta, New Jersey, one of the oldest and largest producers of snuff, was acquired by the American Snuff Company, and all assets were hived up.
  • Mar.1900: The American Snuff Company, formed and owned by Atlantic Snuff (40%/80%), P Lorillard (28%/9%), American Tobacco (26%/9%), and Continental Tobacco (7%/2%), took over the snuff assets of its owners.

  • 1896: Atlantic Snuff Company acquired WE Garrett & Sons Inc.[29] The transaction was orchestrated by Henry D Moore and partner George B Wilson, who had a controlling interest in WE Garrett & Sons.[48]
  • 1895: William Jr sold the company to three employees, Henry D Moore, George B Wilson, and John Gilmore, for $1.
  • ?date?: Stewart-Ralph Snuff Company of Clarksville, Tennessee, was acquired. Previously known as "A Ralph & Company" of Philadelphia.pic-link
  • ?date?: Dental Snuff Company of Lynchburg, Virginia, was acquired.
  • ?date?: Southern Snuff Company of Memphis, Tennessee, was acquired.
  • 1857: WE Garrett & Sons: Willam's two sons, Walter and William Jr, followed him into the business.
  • 1824: Willam E Garrett Company: Levi had two sons, Willam Evans Garrett and George Howell Garrett. Willam Evans Garrett changed the name of the company when he took it over; his brother George trod a different path, selling his shares to William in 1833.
  • ?date?: Levi Garrett & Sons: the snuff business was renamed when Levi Garrett, John Garrett's son, inherited the snuff mill (the only one that made money).
  • 1726: John Garrett built several mills (grist, lumber, and snuff) on the banks of Red Clay Creek near Yorkland, Delaware. The snuff mill was established in 1782.
Sources: link, link, link

Rothmans International plc

Rothmans International was a British tobacco manufacturer; its brands included Rothmans, Players and Dunhill. British American Tobacco took over the company in 1999.


  • Jan.2008: Philip Morris International Inc bought Rothmans Inc.[ref]
  • 2000/2001: The Rothmans' Spennymoorref and Darlington manufacturing plants were closed, with production moved to a larger plant at Southampton.[ref]
  •  ??.1999: Rothmans Inc: British American Tobacco spun off its 60% share of Rothmans, Benson & Hedges as a public company
  • 1999: British American Tobacco acquired Rothmans.ref
  • ?date?: Rothmans, Benson & Hedges Inc was formed by the merger of the Canadian units of Rothmans International and Benson & Hedges, owned by Philip Morris.
  • Jan.1996: Rothmans International: the Rembrandt Group and Richemont merged their tobacco businesses.ref
  • 1958: Carreras was acquired by Rembrandt, which was expanding.
  • 1954: Rembrandt Tobacco Corporation (SA) Ltd of South Africa acquired a controlling interest in Rothmans Ltd.
  • 1929: Rothmans was listed on the London Stock Exchange.
  • 1922: Rothman's Direct-to-Smoker service: they started to sell cigarettes by mail order. Overseas demand also expanded and taking advantage of incentives from the UK Govt to promote the importing of tobacco from British Commonwealth countries, they expanded the business into an international concern.
  • 1919: Louis went into partnership with his son, Sydney.
  • 1912/1913: Yenidje Tobacco Company Ltd: Louis Rothman merged his business with that of Markus Weinberg but, as a result of a disagreement, the arrangement was dissolved in 1916.ref
  • 1905: King Edward VII granted Rothmans a royal warrant.
  • 1900: Rothman opened a small showroom in Pall Mall, from where he launched his famous Pall Mall cigarette brand.
  • 1893: Louis Rothman opened a small kiosk on Fleet Street in London, where he sold the cigarettes he had rolled the previous night.ref

  • Jun.2004: Richemont's effective interest in BAT reduced to 18.6%.... but rose again to ??
  • 2000: reduction in the Group's effective interest in British American Tobacco to 21% through partial disposal of holding of preference shares.
  • 1999: merger of Rothmans International with British American Tobacco. Richemont held 23.3% effective interest in the enlarged British American Tobacco.
  • 1996: merger of Richemont's tobacco interests with those in South Africa held by Rembrant Group Ltd, Richemont owned 67% of the enlarged tobacco group.
  • 1995: Buyout of Rothmans International minority shareholders.
  • 1995: Rothmans International: Rembrandt and Richemont consolidated their respective tobacco interests, forming the world's 4th largest cigarette manufacturer.
  • 1993: Rothmans International NV/plc: separation of Richemont's tobacco operations. Luxury goods went into Vendôme Luxury Group SA/plc.
  • 1989: Richemont acquires Philip Morris' 30% interest in Rothmans International.
  • 1988: Richemont, a Swiss luxury goods company, was formed by the Rembrandt group. Richemont acquired Rembrandt's shares in Rothmans.ref
  • 1972: Rothmans International: Carreras Ltd/Carreras Rothmans Ltd was used as the vehicle for the merger of various European tobacco interests. Rembrandt's overseas tobacco interests were consolidated into Rothmans International. Rembrandt GroupWikipedia-W.svg
  • 1972: : the Carreras name was used as the vehicle for the merger of various European tobacco interests to form Rothmans International.
  • 1967: Alfred Dunhill: Carreras took a 51% stake.
  • 1959: Carreras Rothmans Marketing Division Ltd, a joint marketing operation, was formed by Carreras and Rothmans.
  • Nov.1958: Rembrandt Tobacco Corporation (SA) Ltd acquired a controlling interest in Carreras.ref
  • Nov.1958: Carreras merged with Rothmans of Pall Mall. By 1961 the business had expanded to the point where Carreras had acquired the Rothmans cigarette and tobacco business in Britain and some of its overseas markets. As a result of this deal, the biggest shareholder in the enlarged operation became Rothmans Tobacco (Holdings).
  • 1958: with the beginning of the swing towards filtered cigarette smoking, Carreras launched a brand which came to have national appeal - Guards.
  • 1958: The Baron family decided to sell their shares.
  • ?date?: Alfred Dunhill Ltd, the tobacconists which had been established in 1907 at No 30 Duke Street SW1, was a subsidiary of the Carreras Group. Carreras also had an associate in Jamaica, and an interest in P J Carroll, Ireland’s largest cigarette manufacturer. The Dutch cigar company, Schimmelpenninck, was also part of the Group.
  • 1953: R & J Hill Ltd of London, and Murray, Sons & Company Ltd of Belfast, were acquired by Carreras. Both firms were old-established manufacturing businesses whose trade had suffered after the war.
  • 1953: Carreras acquired the assets of R & J Hill Ltd of London and the entire share capital of Murray, Sons & Company Limited of Belfast who were manufacturing a fine range of popular pipe tobaccos, including Erinmore Mixture and Erinmore Flake.
  • 1930: Jon Sinclair & Company Ltd was acquired by Carreras.
  • 1929: John Sinclair Ltd of Newcastle upon Tyne was acquired. The deal brought Barneys Tobacco, Barneys Punchbowle and Parson's Pleasure.
  • 1921: immediately after the launch of Craven A, launched yet more brands such as Wall Arms, Piccadilly and Turf.
  • 1921 Carreras launched Craven A, a brand that became a household name in over 120 countries with the slogan "Will Not Affect Your Throat". Craven A is a British brand of cigarette, currently owned and manufactured by Rothmans, Benson & Hedges, a subsidiary of Altria in North America and British American Tobacco outside of North America.ref,ref The cigarette brand is named after the third Earl of Craven.ref
  • 1919: Baron Machinery Company was incorporated as a subsidiary to market Baron cigarette-making machines.
  • 1913: Carreras acquired the prestige business of Alexander Bugoslavsky.
  • 1912: Carreras took over an associated company which manufactured cigarettes.
  • pre-WW1: more brands: Fireball, Golden Clipper, Red Route Mixture and Life Ray.
  • 1909: the company introduced the Baron automatic pipe filler in cartridges, which revolutionised pipe smoking and sold by the million.
  • 1906: new brands: Carreras Ovals, Seven Up.
  • 1905: more brands were introduced: Chick, Jetty, Sweet Kiss and Carreras began coupon trading in Black Cat.
  • 1904: Carreras and Marcianus Ltd, an allied company, was established to commence production of machine-made cigarettes. During the 2nd half of 1904 three brands made their debut, including Black Cat, the first cigarette in the UK to contain coupons.
  • Jun.1903: Carreras became a public company with Yapp and Baron as directors and heralded the beginnings of defiant competition for the now powerful Imperial Tobacco Group and the new American invader, James Buchanan Duke, who was also capturing large slices of the British market with Ogden’s Guinea Gold, the first Virginia cigarette made in this country.
  • 1903: Yapp negotiated a business arrangement with Baron.
  • 1903: Carreras was formed, and became associated with members of the Baron family.
  • Dec.1901: Imperial Tobacco Company (Great Britain & Ireland) Ltd: WD & HO Wills joined with 12 other companies; but Rothmans and Carreras chose to remain independent. The Bonsack machine, making 200 cigarettes a minute, was exclusively available only to members of this Group.
  • 1900s: The Baron family acquired a controlling interest in Carreras.
  • 1895: Bernhard Barton came to England from America, holding patents for one of the earliest cigarette-making machines, which he then proceeded to build. The machine could make 450 cigarettes a minute. Bernhard Baron's progress was watched with interest by Mr Yapp who was by then running the Carreras business but who was keen to make cigarettes a paying venture.
  • 1860: Carreras became the founder committee member of the Tobacco Trade Benevolent Association.
  • 1894: W J Yapp, a well-known figure in the shoe leather industry, took control of the Carreras business.
  • 1883: WD & HO Wills, a British manufacturer, pioneered the use of the Bonsack machine in England.
  • 1881: James Bonsack patented the first cigarette making machine in the USA.
  • 1853: Don José was granted a warrant as the sole supplier of cigars and tobacco to the Spanish Legation in London.
  • 1852: Don José Carreras Ferrer, a Spanish nobleman, established the House of Carreras in London.
Additional Sources: Chapter 4

Lorillard Tobacco Company

ToDo: link, link, link, link, link, link, Continental Tobacco Company search, Atlantic Snuff Company search, link, link, link, link, link (not all links are specific to Lorillard)

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