Imperial Brands plc

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Imperial-Brands.svg
Website, Reports
Imperial Tobacco, renamed.
Skull-and-Crossbones-Tobacco.svg
Imperial Brands is a British multinational tobacco company, and the 3rd-largest member of the Big Five tobacco companies, based on net sales (2019).[1] Imperial Brands operates through 4 sectors, with sales in the UK (13.7%), Germany (12.7%), France (11.7%), the USA (10.3%) and other (51.6%):ref
  • Tobacco products: cigarettes; rolling tobacco; rolling papers; cigarette tubes with filters, and snus tobacco;
  • Cigars;
  • E-cigarettes;
  • Distribution, transportation and logistical services: Logista, a European distribution business.

Brands

ToDo: Brand portfolio. More: Fine, News, Jade[1], AR-2017
  • Cigarettes
  • Bastos
  • Cohiba[2]
  • Davidoff
  • Embassy
  • Gauloises Blondes
  • Gitanes
  • John Player Special
  • Kool
  • Lambert & Butler
  • Parker & Simpson
  • Regal
  • Richmond
  • Romeo Y Julieta
  • Superkings
  • West
  • Winston
  • Rolling Tobacco + Papers
  • Drum
  • Golden Virginia
  • Rizla
  • Van Nelle
  • Cigars
  • Backwoods Smokes
  • Davidoff
  • Classic
  • Panama
  • King Edward Coronets
  • Montecristo
  • Romeo Y Julieta
  • Tabacalera
    Tabacalera.svg
  • E-cigarettes
  • Blu
  • JAI
  • Other
  • kruf Snus

Company

Shareholders

Total float: 92.2%
Source: MarketScreener.svg, Mar.2020

Main Subsidiaries

Timelines

ToDo: Imperial TobaccoArchive-org-sm.svg, link, link, link, link, Lorillard, Our companies, AR-2017

Imperial Brands plc

  • Apr.2019: Cigar Business: Imperial announced it would sell its global premium cigar business, and invest in vaping products and other growth areas.[2]
  • Jul.2018: Logista: Imperial Brands cut its stake in Compania de Distribucion Integral Logista Holdings SA to 50%, with the proceds used to reduce debt.ref
  • Jun.2018: Oxford Cannabinoid Technologies: subsidiary Imperial Brands Ventures acquired a ?% interest in the tech startup, which is researching the development of intellectual property around newly-found compounds.[3] OxCanTech.com
  • Feb.2016: Imperial Brands: Imperial Tobacco changed its name to reflect the growing importance of its other businesses.ref

Tabacalera

Tabacalera.svg
Tabacalera is Imperial Brands' international cigar business, headquartered in Madrid, Spain. Formerly known as "Compañía Arrendataria de Tabacos", the company was a Spanish tobacco monopoly whose roots date back to 1636.ref. It operates through 3 divisions:ref
  • 50% Habanos SA: a Cuba-based monopoly founded in 1994, which controls the export of all of Cuba’s cigars. Corporación Habanos is Cuba's official cigar export business. The other 50% is owned by Cubatabaco (Empresa Cubana del Tabaco), the Cuban govt tobacco company.ref habanos.com
  • Tabacalera USA: operates within the USA, the world’s largest premium cigar market.
  • ??: other cigar products sales, including in the Spanish and French markets, are managed by ??.
ToDo: Webpage, History, link, Our Companies, link, link

  • Apr.2020: Gemstone Investment Holding Ltd agreed to acquire the USA cigar business, with Allied Cigar Corporation SL purchasing the cigar business in the rest of the world. The identity of both investment consortia is a complete secret; there is no sign of either company anywhere.ref,ref,ref
  • Apr.2019: Imperial Brands plc announced its intention to get out of the premium cigar business, offerings two major cigar factories, JR Cigar, one of the world’s largest cigar retail chains, 50% of Cuba’s Habanos SA and Altadis USA Inc.ref The Ministry of Cigars has a detailed page on what exactly is up for grabs.ref
  • Jan.2018: Japan Tobacco International acquired a 50% shareholding in La Tabacalera SA, the former monopoly company of the Dominican Republic. JTI entered into a joint venture with the Dominican govt, which continued to hold 49.5% of the shares.ref
  • Oct.2015: Tabacalera USA was formed to oversee its premium, handmade cigar business in the United States.ref
  • Jul.2007: #Imperial Tobacco plc agreed to acquire Altadis.ref
  • 2000: Habanos SA: Altadis SA bought a 50% stake in Cuba's state-run company that controls all of Cuba’s cigar exports.ref
  • 1999: Altadis SA: Seita SA merged with Spain's Tabacalera SA. Consolidated Cigar's name was changed to Altadis USA.
  • 1999: Consolidated Cigar Corporation was acquired by French tobacco monopoly Seita SA (Société d'Exploitation Industrielle des Tabacs et des Allumettes).
  • 1998: Max Rohr Importers Inc, a small company which owned the US distribution rights to the Romeo y Julieta brand, as well as Gispert, Saint Luis Rey, Juan Lopez and Quintero, was acquired by Tabacalera SA.ref
  • 1997: Havatampa Inc, as well as two cigar factories from the Plasencia family, were acquired by Tabacalera SA. The factories, one in Danlí, Honduras and the other in Ocotal, Nicaragua, gave Tabacalera the immediate capacity to make cigars for the USA, which was in the midst of a cigar boom.ref
  • 1993: Consolidated Cigar Corporation was again purchased by Ronald O Perelman, who later took it public.
  • 1988: Consolidated Cigar Corporation was sold to its management team.
  • Jul.1984: Consolidated Cigar Corporation was purchased by billionaire investor Ronald O Perelman.

Fontem Ventures

Fontem Ventures is Imperial Brands' vaping subsidiary, headquartered in Amsterdam, with Nerudia R&D facilities in Liverpool.

Blu eCigs, the "Great White Hope" of the Tobacco Industry, has strong positions in the USA and UK, the world’s two largest vapour markets. Blu products are also sold in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and Spain.ref

ToDo: About, see also Timeline on p.05, Fontem Science, Imperial Brands Science
ToDo: Blu eCigs, link, link, link, link, link, Website

ITG Brands LLC

ITG-Brands-2015-horiz.svg
ITG Brands is the 3rd-largest tobacco company in the USA. It was created in Jan.2015 as a holdco for the former Commonwealth-Altadis operations, and the assets acquired from Reynolds American Inc in 2015, and is headquartered in Greensboro, North Carolina.

ITG Brands markets and sells cigarettes, cigars, and blu eCigs, including Backwoods, Dutch Masters, Grenadier, Hav-A-Tampa, Kool, Maverick, Montclair, Phillies Cigars, USA Gold, Salem, Sonoma, Winston, and El Producto.ref


  • Nov.2018: Jobs: ITG Brands announced the pending closure of its Reidsville factory, with production moving to Greensboro.ref "117 manufacturing jobs would be affected".ref
  • Jun.2015: ITG Brands was formed as an American subsidiary of British conglomerate Imperial Brands. After rival Reynolds American Inc acquired Lorillard Inc from Imperial in 2015, they were required by the USA's Federal Trade Commission to divest 4 cigarette brands. Imperial acquired Winston, Salem, Kool, and Maverick, along with Lorillard's blu eCigs, from the merger.ref,ref,ref
Altadis SA
Altadis-USA.svg
  • Feb.2008: Altadis was acquired by Imperial Tobacco,ref and delisted.ref
  • 1999: Altadis was formed via a merger between former Spanish tobacco monopoly Tabacalera, and former French tobacco monopoly SEITA. Through its international holdings, including ownership of the former Consolidated Cigar Holdings and 50% ownership of Habanos SA, the Cuban state tobacco monopoly, Altadis was the largest producer of mass market and premium cigars in the world, as well as the 4th-largest producer of tobacco products.
ToDo: link, link, link, link, link

Imperial Tobacco Group plc

Imperial-Tobacco-Group-2002.svg
  • Feb.2016: Imperial Brands: Imperial Tobacco changed its name to reflect "the growing importance of its other businesses",ref and to deflect attention away from its death-dealing main product.ref
  • Nov.2014: #ITG Brands LLC: Imperial said Commonwealth-Altadis and the Lorillard operations being acquired would be called ITG Brands LLC.ref As part of the deal, Greensboro became the location of the ITG headquarters.
  • Jun.2015: Lorillard Tobacco Company, based in Greensboro, North Carolina, was sold to Reynolds American Inc. To alleviate antitrust concerns, Imperial acquired Reynolds American's brands Kool, Winston, Maverick, Salem, and Lorillard’s blu eCigs.ref,ref,ref,ref
  • Apr.2014: Jobs: Imperial announced the closure of its long-running Nottingham factory. The factory closed in 2016, marking the end of cigarette production in England.ref
  • 2011: Commonwealth-Altadis Inc was established to combine the operations of Commonwealth Brands and Altadis USA.ref
  • Feb.2008:
    Altadis.svgDeals-Arrow-Left.svg
    Altadis SA, the world's 5th-largest tobacco company, was acquired (95.8%) after a 4-month takeover battle with private equity firms PAI Partners SAS and CVC Capital Partners.ref,ref Altadis's brands included Fortuna, Gauloises Blondes, Ducados, and Gitanes.ref A number of factory closures were subsequently announced, including the long-running cigar factory in Bristol.ref
    Grupo-Logista.svgDeals-Arrow-Left.svg
    Logista SA (formally Compania de Distribucion Integral Logista Holdings SA) is a distributor of cigarettes, retail goods, newspapers and magazines across key European tobacco markets. Logista is one of the largest distribution businesses in Europe, and is listed on the Spanish Stock Exchange. Imperial Brands holds a majority share of the business through Altadis SAU.ref Altadis held a ~59.6% interest in the cigar distribution joint venture with Habanos SA, which Imperial Tobacco inherited.ref About Logista, Website
    Habanos SA is the arm of Cuban state-owned tobacco company CubatabacoWikipedia-W.svg, that controls the promotion, distribution, and export of Cuban cigars and other tobacco products worldwide. In Jun.2014, Imperial Tobacco made an IPO of ~30% of Logista's stock;ref in Jul.2018, another 10% was sold off, with Imperial Tobacco retaining ~50%.ref Altadis.com, Altadis.comArchive-org-sm.svg
  • Apr.2007: Commonwealth Brands Inc: Kentucky-based CBHC Inc, t/a Commonwealth Brands, the 4th-largest cigarette manufacturer in the USA, was acquired. Brands: USA Gold, Sonoma, Montclair, Malibu and Riviera. Commonwealth Brands is the exclusive USA distributor of Bali fine cut tobacco, and McClintock "make your own" products, manufactured by Peter StokkebyeArchive-org-sm.svg in Denmark.ref,ref
  • Jan.2007: Tremaco: a 66% stake in the Estonian distributor was acquired, together with the trademark rights to three cigarette brands which account for ~6% of the Estonian market. A commitment was given to acquire the balance of Tremaco shares over the next three years.ref
  • Aug.2006: Davidoff: the worldwide Davidoff cigarette trademark was acquired from Tchibo Holding AG, with the rights for the Davidoff café brand remaining with Tchibo. Davidoff had sales in 70+ countries worldwide.[rc 1],ref
  • Feb.2006: Gunnar Stenberg AS, a Norwegian distributor of tobacco products and accessories, was acquired. Gunnar's products included rolling papers, cigarettes, fine cut tobacco, snus, and filter tubes.ref
  • Sept.2005: Skruf Snus AB: acquired a 43.5% stake in the Swedish company. The remainder was acquired in Jul.2008.ref
  • May.2004: CTC Tube Company of Canada was acquired. CTC manufactured and sold filter tubes in Canada and the USA, and exported to Europe and the Far East. Brand: Premier.ref
  • May.2002: Reemtsma Cigarettenfabriken GmbH of Germany, then the world's 4th-largest tobacco company, was acquired. Brands: such as Davidoff, Peter Stuyvesant, and West to its portfolio.ref,ref
  • Feb.2002:Lao Tobacco: a majority interest was acquired.
  • Mar.2001: Tobaccor SA: a 75% interest in the 2nd-largest cigarette manufacturer and distributor in Sub-Saharan Africa, with expanding business interests in Vietnam and Laos, was acquired from Bolloré SA.AR-2001:9 In Sept.2002, a further 12.5% was purchased, with an option to acquire the balance by Dec.2005.AR-2002:39
  • Dec.2000: Mayfair Vending Ltd, a UK vending machine operator, was acquired by Imperial Tobacco's subsidiary Sinclair Collis Ltd from the TM Group. Mayfair Vending had vending machines in ~27,000 sites in the UK to supplement Sinclair Collis' 12,000 sites.AR-2001:36
  • Oct.2000: EFKA group, a German manufacturer of rolling papers, tubes, filling and rolling devices and filters, was acquired. EFKA had operations in both Germany and Canada. Brands: EFKA paper, Columbus, El Rey tube.ref
  • Sept.2000: Baelen International NV and Tabakbedrijf Baelen NV, a Belgian manufacturer of roll your own tobacco, was acquired. Brands: Interval, Werviqc.ref
  • Sept.1999: Imperial Tobacco Australia Ltd and Imperial New Zealand Ltd were established when Imperial Tobacco Group acquired a portfolio of cigarette, roll-your-own tobacco and cigarette paper brands from British American Tobacco plc, WD & HO Wills Holdings Ltd, Rothmans Holdings Ltd and Rothmans Holdings Australia BV. The acquisition equated to a cigarette market share of 17.1% in Australia, and 17.6% in New Zealand.ref
  • Jul.1998: Van Nelle Tabak Nederland BV, the Netherlands-based roll-your-own and pipe tobacco business, was acquired. Brands: Drum, Van Nelle, Brandaris and Winner.ref
  • 1997: Rizla UK Ltd – the world's number one manufacturer of rolling papers.
  • Oct.1996:
    London-Stock-Exchange.svg
    Imperial Tobacco Group was listed as an independent company on the London stock exchange.ref
  • Aug.1996:
    Imperial-Tobacco-Group-1996.svg
    Imperial Tobacco Group plc was incorporated for the purpose of demerging Hanson plc's tobacco interests.
Additional Sources: Acquisitions 1997-2008

ToDo: link, link, link, link, link, link, link, link, brand picsArchive-org-sm.svg

Imperial Group Ltd

  • Apr.1986: Hanson Trust plc, a conglomerate, acquired Imperial Group,[4] and immediately set about selling off Imperial Tobacco's non-tobacco businesses to cover the acquisition costs, leaving a hugely profitable tobacco business.
  • 1985: The Peoples Drugstore chain was acquired from Lane Drug,ref owned by AC Israel Enterprises Inc.ref
  • Mar.1983: TKM Foods Ltd was sold to Hillsdown Holdings Ltd. The transaction included Smedley’s canned and frozen fruit and vegetables, a factory at Wisbech, and a cannery at Maldon.ref
  • 1982: Allied Farm Foods, Buxted Poultry, Eastwood Thompson and JB Eastwood, the UK chicken and egg, animal feed, and meat trading operations, were sold to Hillsdown Holdings Ltd.[The Times, Jul 09, 1982], todo, todo, todo, todo, todo
  • 1981: TKM Foods Ltd was formed from the merger of two canned fruit and vegetable companies: Smedley's, and Tozer, Kemsley and Millbourn (Holdings).The Times, Apr.18.1981.
  • 1981: Happy Eater was acquired from founder Michael Pickard.
  • 1980: Howard Johnson's was acquired from Howard Brennan Johnson, the founder's son. Imperial obtained 1,040 restaurants (75% company owned/25% franchised) and 520 motor lodges (75% franchised/25% company owned).
  • 1978: Eastwood Thompson was acquired.todo
  • 1974: British Cod Liver Oil Producers Ltd, a co-operative venture between Boyd Line Ltd, Hudson Brothers Ltd, and Hellyer Brothers Ltd, a group of trawler companies operating out of Hull, was acquired by Imperial Foods (formerly Ross Group), a division of Imperial Tobacco.ref,ref
  • 1973: Imperial Group Ltd: having become increasingly diversified by the acquisition of restaurant chains, food services, and distribution businesses, amongst others, the company changed its name.[4]

Imperial Tobacco Company

  • Nov.1972: Poultry Enterprises, t/a "Country Stile", a broiler-growing and processing joint venture between the Vesteys and Unilever Ltd, was acquired by Ross Poultry.[5]
  • 1972: Smedley HP Foods Ltd: Smedley was merged with HP Foods Ltd, and the Smedley brand name was dropped from the products.
  • 1972: Courage, Saccone and Speed, Imperial Hotels were acquired.todo, todo
  • 1970: Allied Farm Foods, another major acquisition in the food sector.[The Times, Jan 24, 1970]
  • 1969: Motoross, operators of motorway service stations, was launched.
  • 1969: Young's Seafoods was acquired.[The Times, Apr 03, 1982],todo
  • 1969: Smedley Ross Foods: a new subsidiary was formed to handle the frozen foods business of the recently-acquired Smedley and Ross businesses.[6]
  • 1969: Ross Group, maker of frozen food, poultry, shellfish and processed vegetable products, was acquired and renamed as "Imperial Foods".todo
  • Apr.1968: National Canning Company, maker of Smedley's canned and frozen foods, was purchased from its owners, Wallace and Graham Smedley.[The Times Mar 19, 1968],todo,todo,todo,todo,todo, todo
  • Sept.1967: HP Sauce Ltd, maker of sauces, pickles, canned beans and other foods, including Lea & Perrins, was acquired by Imperial Foods, a division of Imperial Group.todo,todo
  • 1964: Anselm Holdings, a group of companies making plastic products, was acquired (75%).[The Times Nov 03, 1964]
  • 1964: As a prelude to further diversification, the company was split into 4 divisions:
    • Tobacco
    • Paper and Board
    • Distributive Trades
    • General trade interests
  • 1962: Mardon Packaging International Ltd, a cigarette packaging firm formed from 5 smaller packaging companies, was established as a joint venture between Imperial Tobacco and British American Tobacco Ltd (initially named "Mardon International Ltd"). Mardon produced a wide variety of commodities, ranging from cigarette packs to general printing, plastic bottles and paper cups. In 1971, William Thyne & Co was taken over by Mardon Packaging.ref In Jul.1985, BAT Industries agreed to a leveraged buyout of Mardon Packaging International Ltd by Mardon executives, and Canadian and British investors.ref
  • 1960: Golden Wonder Crisp Company, a small business manufacturing crisps in Edinburgh, was acquired.todo
  • 1953: J&H Wilson, snuff makers of Sheffield, was acquired.
  • 1944: E&W Anstie was acquired.
  • Jan.1938: Walters Tobacco Company Ltd was acquired. The popularity of Walters' Medium Navy Cut brand had presented Imperial Tobacco, Carreras, Gallaher and Godfrey Philips with unwelcome competition.ref:22
  • 1932: Gallaher Ltd: Imperial Tobacco acquired a 51% majority interest in Gallaher in order to forestall an anticipated takeover by American Tobacco Company (Mk3).Ch.4
  • 1930: T Robert Sinclair Tobacco Company Ltd: a controlling interest was acquired in the wholesale distributor, based in Newcastle upon Tyne, to forestall attempts by others to gain control. The company later become wholly-owned, ceasing manufacture in 1953. Between 1930-1960, Sinclair acquired 14 other wholesalers, becoming the largest company in its sector in Scotland and northern England.
  • 1927: Finlay Company: Imperial acquired a controlling interest in the chain of retail tobacconists in order to keep it out of the hands of American Tobacco.ref:52 In 1963, Finlays become a wholly-owned subsidiary.
  • 1926: The Leaf Buying and Processing Organisation was established in Africa, and the British Leaf Tobacco Company in Canada.
  • 1921: St Anne's Board Mill Company was acquired.
  • 1920: Canon's Marsh Tobacco Bonds was established in Bristol to store glued tobacco leaves.
  • 19??: Robert Fletcher & Son and Ashton Containers were acquired to produce cigarette paper.
  • 1914-1918: The Rise and Rise of Tobacco: by the end of World War I, Imperial Tobacco had a virtual monopoly. The War Office supplyied free tobacco to soldiers, with French factories, Queen Alexandra, tobacco manufacturers and retailers all helped in this aspect of the War Effort - despite the awareness and serious warnings of the health risks. Imperial Tobacco argued against rationing on the grounds that it would lead smokers to eat more, putting even greater pressure on trans-Atlantic shipping space, marking the launch of the Tobacco Industry's long, long, list of infamous misrepresentation.[7]
  • 1911: British-American Tobacco Ltd: American Tobacco Company exited the JV, but Imperial Tobacco maintained its interest until 1980.[8]
  • 1910: Imperial Tobacco Company of India was established by Imperial Tobacco.ref Website
  • 1908: Fallon & Martin, a tobacco buyer/broker in Durham, North Carolina, was acquired; Imperial was seeking to establish its own leaf-buying operations in the USA.ref
  • Sept.1902: British-American Tobacco Ltd was formed as a joint venture between Imperial Tobacco and American Tobacco, in a bid to end the intense war. The non-domestic operations of each company, plus the rights to use the other's brands and trade marks at home, were transferred to the new company. American Tobacco agreed to relinquish Ogdens.[8]
  • 1902: Controlling interests in retail chains: Salmon & Gluckstein Ltd (later, Bewlay (Tobacconists) Ltd), operating 140 tobacconists; AI Jones & Company Ltd; and James Quinton Ltd.ref:52 These were but the first of a long series of acquisitions, to keep the companies out of the hands of the competition.ref:167
  • 1902: Anglo-American Trade War: Imperial Tobacco slashed its prices, and launched a vigorous "Don't Buy American" campaign.[9] American Tobacco retaliated with free gifts, advertising, and even lower prices. The rivalry looked set to became a race to the bottom, when Imperial Tobacco started to make moves towards the American market.
  • Dec.1901: Imperial Tobacco Company (Great Britain and Ireland) Ltd: the English response was to combine 13 tobacco and cigarette firms to present a united front, although the companies continued to trade under their own names and retained responsibility for their own manufacturing and selling: #WD & HO Wills, Stephen Mitchell & Son of Glasgow; #John Player & Sons; Lambert & Butler; Edwards, Ringer & Bigg; Hignett Bros & Company Ltd; Hignett's Tobacco Company Ltd; William Clarke & Son Ltd; Richmond Cavendish Company Ltd; D & J MacDoland; F&J Smith; Adkin & Sons; and Franklyn Davey of Bristol.ref[4][9] The following year, five more firms joined: #WA & AC Churchman; WT Davies & Sons; W Williams & Company; W&F Faulkner Ltd; Mardon, Son & Hall of Bristol (printers). In 1904, James & Finlay Bell Ltd merged with Stephen Mitchell & Son.
  •  ??.1901: The American Tobacco Company, which had been vigorously establishing a virtual monopoly in the USA, expressed an avowed intent of "capturing the English and European trade".ref:16 High tariffs in the UK had formed an effective barrier; to sidestep these, ATC bought #Ogens Ltd, a Liverpudlian tobacco manufacturer.[9] The acquisition was the starting flag for competitive warfare in the UK market.ref:34

Reemtsma Cigarettenfabriken GmbH

Website, ReemtsmaWikipedia-W.svg
  • 2002: Imperial Tobacco Ltd purchased Tchibo's ~76% majority shareholding with the agreement of the Reemtsma family.[rc 2] At the time, Reemtsma was the world's 4th-largest tobacco company.[rc 3][rc 1]
  • Dec.2001: Liggett-Ducat Ukraine: a factory in Cherkassy, Ukraine was sold to Gallaher Group plc. The purchase enabled Gallaher to launch Liggett-Ducat Ukraine, a strategic venture to further its growth in the Commonwealth of Independent StatesWikipedia-W.svg.ref
  • 1980: Tchibo GmbH, a German coffee producing company, acquired a majority shareholding from Philipp Reemtsma's only surviving son, who refused to take over the company.[rc 1]
  • 1960: Haus Neuerburg was sold to American tobacco manufacturer RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, and renamed to "Reynolds-Neuerburg". In 1977, it was renamed again to "RJ Reynolds Tobacco".[rc 3]
  • 1935: Haus Neuerburg, founded by brothers Keinrich and August Neuerburg in 1908, was taken over.[rc 3]
  • ?dates?: Cigarette factories Manoli, Josetti, Jasmatzi, Batschari and Yenidze were acquired.[rc 4]
  • 1918: During the Third Reich, the company prospered despite the official anti-tobacco policy of the Nazis.[3] Reemtsma's financial support of the Nazis was unparalleled among German companies.[rc 5][rc 6]
  • 1910: Reemtsma was established in Erfurt, Germany by Philipp F Reemtsma and his two brothers, Hermann F Reemtsma and ??.[rc 4]
References
  1. ^ a b c Tchibo verkauft Davidoff. Tchibo buys Davidoff. from Reuters, Manager Magazin, Aug.23.2006.
  2. ^ Wenn Geschwister mit Milliarden spielen. When siblings play with billions. Gunhild Freese, Die Zeit Online, Mar.14.2002.
  3. ^ a b c A Century of Tobacco History: from Haus Neuerburg to JTI. JT International SA. Accessed Jan.25.2020.
  4. ^ a b Die Firma Reemtsma — Eckpfeiler der Firmenentwicklung. The Reemtsma Company - Cornerstone of Company Development. Tino Jacobs, Museum der Arbeit. Accessed Jan.25.2020.
  5. ^ Zwölf Millionen für Göring Twelve million for Goering. Erik Lindner, Cicero Online. Original archived on Aug.26.2018.
  6. ^ "Rauch und Macht: das Unternehmen Reemtsma 1920 bis 1961.", Tino Jacobs, Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen, 2008, ISBN: 978-3-8353-0313-3

Ogdens Ltd

  • 1973: WA & AC Churchman's was taken over, marking the final consolidation of pipe brands.
  • 1962: Ogden's stopped making cigarettes to concentrate on pipe tobaccos, including brands St Bruno and Gold Block.
  • 1959: W & E Faulkner was acquired.
  • 1953: J & H Wilson of Sheffield was acquired.
  • 1930: Hignett Brothers was acquired.
  • 1924: William Clarke's UK business was acquired.
  • Sept.1902: Ogden's was surrendered by the American Tobacco Company to the Imperial Tobacco Company, after the JV British-American Tobacco Company Ltd was established between the two rivals.[10]
  • ?date?: Salmon & Gluckstein's retail business was acquired.
  • 1901: Ogdens Ltd was acquired by the American Tobacco Company to get around the high tariff walls which had prevented the American Tobacco Company from expanding to the UK.[9]
  • 1860: Thomas Ogden opened a small retail shop in Liverpool's Park Lane. Business boomed.

WA & AC Churchman

  • 1896: installed one of the first cigarette-making machines, producing 20,000 cigarettes an hour; the famous "Churchman's No 1" brand dates from this period.
  • 1890: the company was making 'white cigarettes'.
  • 1888: WA & AC Churchman: William Alfred Churchman (later Sir William) and Arthur Charles Churchman (later Lord Woodbridge and a director of the British American Tobacco Company from 1904 to 1923), grandsons of the founder, succeeded their father, Henry, in the business. At that time output was mainly shag, snuff and tobacco. Liberals (Lloyd George) rewarded these two early Tobacco Barons: Baron ChurchmanWikipedia-W.svg, Lord WoodbridgeWikipedia-W.svg
  • 1790: William Churchman, a small pipe tobacco manufacturer based in Ipswich, opened a shop at Hyde Park Corner in London.

John Player & Sons

  • ?date?: WD & HO Wills merged with Stephen Mitchell & Son of Glasgow.
  • 1926: The Player brothers retired from active participation in the business.
  • 1895: Player's became a private limited company.
  • 1893: John D and William G Player, John Player's sons, took over as managing directors.
  • 1884: After John Player died aged 45, the business run by a group of close friends.
  • 1877: John Player bought a small tobacco manufacturing business in Broad Marsh, Nottingham. It produced pipe and chewing tobaccos, as well as hand-made cigarettes.[10]

WD & HO Wills

  • 1901: Stephen Mitchell & Son of Glasgow was acquired.
  • 1888: Woodbine brand was launched.
  • 1815: WD & HO Wills: The company was renamed; in 1826, William Day Wills and Henry Overton Wills II succeeded their father.
  • 1789: Wills & Company: Henry Wills' partner retired.
  • 1786: Wills, Watkins & Company: Henry Overton Wills opened a shop in Castle Street, Bristol.[10]
Sources: W. D. and H. O. Wills. Grace's Guide. Accessed Jan.12.2020. pic-link,

References

  1. ^ Leading tobacco companies worldwide in 2019, based on net sales. Statistica, Feb.18.2020.
  2. ^ Imperial to sell premium cigar business in shift to vaping. Justin George Varghese, S Sangameswaran, Reuters, Apr.30.2019.
  3. ^ Imperial Brands invests in cannabis-based medical research. Martinne Geller, Reuters, Jun.28.2018.
  4. ^ a b c History. Imperial Tobacco. Original archived on Mar.01.2015.
  5. ^ Unilever and Union Int sell poultry interest. The Times Archive, Nov.15.1972.
  6. ^ The Times, Dec.02.1969.
  7. ^ "“When the smoke cleared: Tobacco supply and consumption by the British Expeditionary Force, 1914-1918”", Henry Daniels, Revue Française de Civilisation Britannique, 2015.
  8. ^ a b Our History: Early years: 1902-1932. British American Tobacco. Original archived on Feb.09.2009.
  9. ^ a b c d "The Americanization of the world.", William Thomas Stead, H Markley, New York, Dec.31.1902.
  10. ^ a b c Our History. Imperial Brands. Accessed Jan.28.2020.