GlaxoSmithKline plc

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GlaxoSmithKline is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in London. Established in 2000 by the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham, GSK was the world's 6th largest pharmaceutical company as of 2015, after Pfizer, Novartis, Merck, Hoffmann-La Roche and Sanofi.ref

Climate Policy Rating:[1] InfluenceMap  A-
GlaxoSmithKline continues to support ambitious climate change, mainly in the EU. However, it is a direct member of the Confederation of British Industry, which has mixed support for climate change legislation.[2]

Corporate Political Engagement Rating:[3] Transparency International    A  

Brands

ToDo: Products.com, Products.uk, Vaccines, gskvaccines.comArchive-org-sm.svg, gsk.comArchive-org-sm.svg (2010)

Corruption

See GlaxoSmithKlineWikipedia-W.svg for a long list of Seriously Bad Stuff.

Company

Shareholders

Total float: 91.2%
Source: MarketScreener.svg, Mar.2020

Timelines

ToDo: Investors, About, link

GlaxoSmithKline plc

  • ?date?: Sirtris Pharmaceuticals Inc, a world leader in sirtuin research and development, was acquired.
  • Dec.2018: Horlicks: GSK's health food and drinks portfolio in India, Bangladesh and 20 other predominantly Asian markets was sold to Unilever plc. The sale follows GSK's acquisition of Novartis's stake in their consumer health joint venture earlier this year.[4]
  • Apr.2018: Horlicks: the licensed branded rights in specific territories was sold to Aimia Foods Ltd,OpenCorporates-sm.svg a UK subsidiary of Cott Corporation.[5] The Horlicks factory at Slough, which had been in operation since 1908, was sold to Berkeley Homes, which turned it into apartment blocks.[6] logopic
  • Sept.2014:
    Shady-Deals.svg
    Bribery: GSK's China Investment division was fined £297m after being found guilty of bribing non-government personnel.[7]
  • Sept.2013: Ribena and Lucozade were sold to Japanese holdco Suntory Holdings Ltd.[8][9]
  • Jul.2012: Fraud: GSK was fined US $3bn in the biggest healthcare fraud case in history, after promoting Paxil and Wellbutrin, two antidepressant drugs, for unapproved uses, including treatment of children and adolescents, and also for failing to report safety data about diabetes drug, Avandia. Investigations had started in Jan.1997 in relation to 9 of its products.[10]
  • Dec.2010: Nanjing MeiRui Pharmaceuticals, a Chinese pharmaceutical company, was acquired from Pagoda Pharmaceuticals Ltd (90%) and Allergon AB (10%). The acquisition expanded GSK's presence in China through Nanjing MeiRui's portfolio of urology and allergy products, plus its established sales and marketing network.[11]
  • Dec.2000: GlaxoSmithKline plc: SmithKline Beecham plc and Glaxo Wellcome plc merged.[12] Regulatory approval required the divestment of a number of products; the most significant being: Famvir was sold to Novartis International AG, and Kytril was sold to Roche Holding AG.

Additional Sources: About us: Our History GlaxoSmithKline plc. Original archived on Apr.22.2012.
ToDo: ReportsArchive-org-sm.svg, 2002-2011

SmithKline Beecham plc

  • Jun.1993: Divestments: the worldwide bath and body care operations, including Brylcreem men's toiletries, Badedas bubble bath and Body Mist deodorants, were sold to the Sara Lee Corporation; and the hair-care brands, including Silvikrin, Vosene and Bristows, to Wella AG. Wella also bought SmithKline's hair-care brands, including Silvikrin, Vosene and Bristows.[13]
  • AR-Dec.1991: Disposals: SBF Holdings Ltd; the Montana cosmetics and fragrances business in France; disposal of assets in a UK animal health business.
  • Apr.1990: Bovril, along with Ambrosia desserts and Marmite spread, were sold to American food company CPC International Inc.[14]
  • AR-Dec.1990: Disposals: Yardley/Lentheric and Astor/Lancaster cosmetics and fragrances business; and the Neolait/Codislait animal nutritional business in France.
  • 1989: Engerix-B hepatitis B vaccine (recombinant), a genetically-engineered hepatitis B vaccine, was launched in the USA and France.
  • Jul.1989: SmithKline Beecham plc: the UK's Beecham Group plc and USA company SmithKline Beckman Corporation merged, with Beecham Group plc and SmithKline Beecham Corporation becoming wholly-owned subsidiaries of the new company, SmithKline Beecham plc.[15] The merger created the 2nd-largest pharmaceutical company in the world.

Beecham Group plc

  • Sept.1988: Juvena group of cosmetics companies based principally in Europe was sold to ??
  • Aug.1988: Beecham Cosmetics Inc in the USA was sold to ??
  • Sept.1987: DAP Inc, a home improvement products business in the USA, was sold to USG Corporation.[16] DAP ProductsWikipedia-W.svg
  • Jan.1987: The UK softs drinks business, Corona, Tango, Quosh and Top Deck were sold to Britvic plc, leaving just Lucozade and Sparkling Ribena.[17]
  • Dec.1986: the UK and European home improvement products business was sold to ??
  • AR-Mar.1986: Ceresit became a wholly-owned subsidiary.
  • Dec.1985: Norcliff Thayer Inc, a US manufacturer and distributor of OTC medicines and health products, was acquired, adding Tums (antacid tablets) and Oxy (acne treatments) to its over-the-counter portfolio.
  • AR-Mar.1986: Horlicks Farms & Dairies's retail milk business was sold. Reached agreement on the sale of the Batchelors foods business in Ireland, and two smaller businesses in Australia and the USA. Looking for a purchaser for the Home Improvements businesses.
  • mid-1980s: Beecham decided to concentrate on two key areas of consumer products, and prescription and over-the-counter medicines, and consequently divested various businesses.
  • Mar.1985: Unibond (Holdings) plc, a manufacturer of adhesives and sealants, was acquired.[18]
  • Jan.1985: British-American Cosmetics Ltd: BAT Industries plc's cosmetics and fragrances business was acquired. Brands included: Yardley, Lentheric, Morny, Cyclax, Juvena, Germaine Monteil, Carven, Gres. The company was subsequently renamed as "Bond Street Cosmetics".
  • Jul.1984: Copydex plc, a manufacturer and seller of home improvement products, including adhesives and floor covering accessories, was acquired.[19]
  • Mar.1984: Roberts Consolidated Industries Inc, a supplier of branded contact adhesives in the USA, was acquired.[19]
  • Feb.1984: Dr L Zambeletti SpA, an Italian pharmaceutical company, was acquired after Beecham managed to obtain an 83.8% shareholding from the Zambeletti family. The deal gave Beecham entry to the Italian market.[20]
  • 1982/83: Fink Group in Germany, natural health foods and medicines.
  • Feb.1983: DAP Inc, formerly "Dicks Armstrong-Pontius", a Ohio-based home improvement products business, was acquired from Schering-Plough Corporation's DIY subsidiary. The transaction brought one-third of the American market in sealants, caulks and fillers.[21]
  • 1983: Diane Von Furstenberg, a fragrance line, was acquired.
  • Oct.1982: JB Williams Company was purchased from Nabisco Brands Inc, bringing strong performers such as Geritol, a vitamin preparation; Sominex, the sleep aid; Lectric Shave, and Aqua Velva after shave.[21]
  • 1981/82: Jil Sander, a small fragrances and cosmetics business in Germany, was acquired.
  • Nov.1981: Beecham Group plc: re-registered as a public limited company.

Beecham Group Ltd

  • Apr.1980: Bovril Ltd, including Marmite and Ambrosia, was purchased from Cavenham Foods Ltd, the food retailing arm of French investment group Générale Occidentale SA.[22] James Goldsmith's Cavenham Foods Ltd had acquired the Bovril Company in 1971 from its owner, the somewhat clueless George Lawson JohnstonWikipedia-W.svg.[23] To recoup the cost, Goldsmith sold off the Ambrosia dairies to Grand Metropolitan plc in Jun.1971; and Bovril's Argentinian operations to a groupo of prominent Argentinian cattle men in Apr.1973.[24] Bovril LtdOpenCorporates-sm.svg
  • Sept.1979: Jovan Inc, a Chicago-based manufacturer and distributor of fragrances and perfumes, was acquired. Jovan made Yardley products under licence for the USA market.[25]
  • Oct.1978: Fraud: Beecham Group and Bristol-Myers Company were found guilty of comspiring to restrain commerce in ampicillin and other semi-synthetic penicillins. The two firms were also charged with fraudulently producing and enforcing a patent on ampicillian.[26]
  • Aug.1978: Scott & Browne Ltd, a Southal, UK-based toiletries and proprietary medicines manufacturer, was acquired. S&B, founded in 1888, produced and distributed Scott's Emulsion, Fenjal, Vykmin multi-vitamin capsultes, Skol sun creams, and Steedman's baby products.[27]
  • Mar.1978: Rohm & Haas Company, a USA chemical company, sold its animal health businesses in the UK, Europe and Australia. Range of animal vaccines.[28]
  • 1978: Aquafresh toothpaste was launched. By 1980, it had become the 2nd-best selling toothpaste in the USA.
  • 1976/77: Beecham Laboratories: Mowatt & Moore Ltd, a private pharmaceutical company in Quebec, was acquired and subsequently renamed.
  • ?date?: Haering & Company, a family-owned toiletries business in Switzerland, was acquired.
  • Apr.1977: Calgon Consumer Products Company: the floundering consumer and bath products USA business was purchased from Merck & Company Inc,[29] tripling Beecham's consumer products business in the USA overnight. Principal brands acquired were: Cling Free, an anti-static fabric softener; Calgon and Calgonite, a water softener and dishwasher detergent; Calgon bath additives; Sucrets throat lozenges; Hold cough suppressant; Fruit Fresh, a fruit preservative; and Hold, a cough suppressant.[30]
  • 1977: Sucrets brand was acquired from Merck & Company Inc. In 2000, GlaxoSmithKline sold the brand to Insight Pharmaceuticals Corporation, a portfolio company of American private equity firm Swander Pace Capital and its co-investment partner, Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan.[31] In Apr.2014, Insight Pharmaceuticals was acquired by Prestige Brands Holdings Inc.[32] insightpharma.comArchive-org-sm.svg, sucrets.comArchive-org-sm.svg
  • 1975: Johann A Wülfing KG, a privately-owned German company specialising in the production of drugs for treating cardio-vascular disease, vitamin deficiency and bronchial conditions, was acquired.[33]
  • ?date?: Findlater, Mackie, Todd, a wine and spirits subsidiary, was acquired.
  • Jan.1974: Lingner & Fischer GmbH, based in West Germany, was acquired. Main products are toiletries, including Odol mouthwash.
  • ?date?: Fischer & Fischer: German company, markets the Badedas range of bath products.
  • Dec.1973: Laboratoires Neolait SA, a private company based in Britttany, acquired a 77.8% interest.
  • Dec.1973: Batchelors Ltd, an Ireland-based food and soft drinks company, was acquired.
  • Apr.1973: Laboratorios Villela SA, a Brazilian pharmaceutical company, was acquired.
  • 1971: SE Massengill Company, a pharmaceutical and feminine hygiene products business founded in 1897 by Samuel Evans Massengill in Tennessee, was acquired by Beecham Pharmaceuticals.[34] In Dec.2011, Massengill was sold to Prestige Brands Holdings Inc.[35]
  • ?date?: Silvikrin shampoo, was acquired.
  • ?date?: Vosene, a brand of medicated shampoo made by the Vosemar Company of Bury, Lancashire, was acquired. vosene.co.uk
  • 1969: Shloera line of soft drinks containing apple and grape juice, was acquired. Vosene.co.uk, Lornamead.com
  • 1969: Horlicks Ltd, created in the 1870s by brothers William and James Horlick, was acquired.[36][37]
  • 1964: James Pascall and Murray, Beecham's sweets interests, were sold to Cadbury Ltd.[38]
  • 1959:
    Penicillin core.svg
    Penicillin: Beecham scientists discovered the penicillin nucleus;[39] the discovery enabled the synthesis of a nmber of new semisynthetic penicillins: Broxil (phenethicillin); Celbenin (methicillin); Penbritin (ampicillin); Amoxil (amoxicillin).
  • 1958: Corona: Thomas & Evans Ltd, manufacturer of Corona soft drinks, was acquired. Corona (soft drink)Wikipedia-W.svg
  • 1958: The Pure Lemon Juice Company was purchased, and integrated into Beecham Foods Ltd.[40]
  • Apr.1955: Beecham Foods Ltd was formed to bring the groups food and beverage interest togehter under a single organisation.[40]
  • 1955: Ribena: HW Carter & Company, manufacturer of the syrup, was acquired. The name was supposedly derived from the Latin for blackcurrant: "Ribes nigrum".[41][9]
  • 1949: CL Bencard Ltd, a manufacturer specialising in allergy vaccines, was acquired, paving the way for entry into the prescription drug field. CL Bencard formed the Bencard Allergy division of the Beecham Research Laboratories.[42]
  • Aug.1945: Beecham Group Ltd: the company was re-named, replacing Beecham Pills Ltd and Beecham Estates Ltd, and incorporating Beecham Research Laboratories.

Beecham's Pills Ltd

Thomas and Joseph Beecham's adoption of innovative and aggressive American marketing techniques, coupled with an emerging health culture, led to Beecham's Pills becoming extremely successful.[43]
  • 1943: Beecham Research Laboratories Ltd was opened in Brockham Park, Surrey to focus exclusively on basic pharmaceutical research.
  • 1939: Brylcreem: County Perfumery Company Ltd, manufacturers of Brylcreem, a men's hair application, was acquired, adding products for men to its product line.
  • 1938: Eno Proprietaries Ltd, manufacturer of the antacid Eno's Fruit Salts, was acquired.[44] The deal provided Beecham's with 14 subsidiaries in the Americas, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and western Europe, and a wide-spread export organisation.[45] WP:Fruit salt, WP:Eno (drug), WP:James Crossley Eno, GG:Enos Fruit Salts
  • 1938: Macleans Ltd, a toothpaste manufacturer, was acquired. Macleans was founded in 1919 by Alex C Maclean to produce 'own-brand' products for chemists.
  • 1938:
    Lucozade-1950s.svg
    Lucozade, a glucose drink known as "Glucozade" until 1929, was acquired from William Walker Hunter, a Newcastle chemist who had invented it in 1927.[46]
  • late.1930s: Prichard & Constance, a shampoo manufacturer that distributed the brand name Amami, was acquired.
  • 1931: Yeast-Vite, including Holloway's Pills, was acquired.
  • Jan.1928: Beecham's Pills Ltd was incorporated as a public company. OpenCorporates-sm.svg

Beecham's Pills

Beechams-Pills-1850s.jpg
  • 1928: Veno Drug Company, a Manchester-based manufacturer of cough syrup, was acquired.
  • 1926: Beecham's Powders, a remedy for headaches, neuralgia and the common cold, was introduced.
  • 1924: The Beecham estate is purchased by Philip Hill, who realised that the Beecham's Pills business could, through diversification, become the basis of a major company.
  • 1924: Philip Hill, a financier who had made his money in real estate, acquired control of Beecham. Hill acquired patent medicines such as Yeast Vite, Iron Jelloids, Phosferine, and Phyllosan, to broaden the product line.
  • 1859: The first factory in St Helens, Lancashire, was opened to speed up production of medicines.
  • 1847: Beecham Pills: Thomas Beecham sold his pills from a market stall in Wigan.[47]
  • 1842: Beecham's Pills, a mild laxative comprised of aloes, ginger and soap, was Thomas Beecham's first product,[48] marketing the same herbal preparation for humans.
  • ~1830s: Thomas Beecham, the son of agricultural labourers, worked as a shepherd, using his knowledge of herbs to treat his sheep. He noticed the laxative effects of certain plants and shrubs on the animals.
Additional Sources: Beecham Group plc: Annual Reports 1974-2018. Companies House. Accessed Dec.20.2019. ♦ GlaxoSmithKline: Our history. GlaxoSmithKline plc. Original archived on Dec.27.2010.A Capsulated History of Beecham's Pills. T Farrell, Let's Look Again, Nov.24.2017. ♦ Smithkline Beecham PLC. Encyclopedia.com. Accessed Dec.22.2019.

GlaxoSmithKline plc

  • Dec.2000: GlaxoSmithKline was formed by the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham merged.[35][36]

SmithKline Beecham plc

[49] sb.comArchive-org-sm.svg

  • 1989: SmithKline Beecham plc: SmithKline Beckman Corporation and the Beecham Group plc merged, creating the 2nd-largest drug company in the world.[50] The company's headquarters relocated from the USA to England. As part of the merger, SmithKline would divest Allergan Inc, and Beecham would sell off its cosmetics operations, including its Yardley, Margaret Astor and Lancaster lines.
  • 1988: International Clinical Laboratories was acquired. Based in Nashville, Tennessee, ICL operated 13 major clinical testing laboratories located mainly in the southern and western USA.[51]
    • SmithKline BioScience Laboratories acquired one of its largest competitors, International Clinical Laboratories, Inc, increasing the company's size by half and establishing SmithKline BioScience Laboratories as the industry leader.
  • 1960s: Beecham was extensively involved in pharmaceuticals and consumer products such as Macleans toothpaste, Lucozade and synthetic penicillin research.
  • 1859: Beecham opened its first factory in St Helens, Lancashire.
  • 1848: Thomas Beecham launched his Beecham's Pills laxative in England, giving birth to the Beecham Group.

  • 1989: SmithKline Beecham plc: the Beecham Group plc and SmithKline Beckman merged.
  • 1986:
  • 1982: SmithKline Beckman: Smith Kline & French merged with Beckman Inc, and changed its name.[49][32]
  • 1981/82: SmithKline Beckman Corporation: after the acquisition, the company was renamed.
  • 1981/82: Beckman Instruments Inc, a California-based company specialising in diagnostics and measurement instruments, and supplies, was acquired (84%).[The Times, Nov 28, 1981],[The Times, Aug 24, 1957],[The Times, Aug 31, 1965]
  • 1980: Allergan Inc, a manufacturer of eye and skincare products, was acquired by SmithKline Corporation, and merged with Beckman Instruments Inc, a company specialising in diagnostics and measurement instruments and supplies. ref,ref,[49][12]


  • 1969: The company began to expand globally, buying seven laboratories in Canada and the USA.
  • 1969: Recherche et Industrie Thérapeutiques in Belgium was acquired by Smith, Kline & French to focus on vaccines. Its name was first changed to "SmithKline-RIT", then in 1989, to "SmithKline Beecham Biologicals", and again in 2000, to "GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals". ref
  • 1956: AJ White, a manufacturer of pharmaceutical products, was acquired.[The Times, Mar 16, 1956] AJ White had been distributing Smith Kline & French Laboratories' products for ~30 years.[The Times, Jan 10, 1956]
  • 1929: Smith Kline & French Laboratories: the company changed its name as it focused more on research in order to sustain its business.
  • ?date?: Norden Laboratories, a business doing research into animal health, was acquired.
  • 1891: Smith, Kline & French: post-acquisition, Smith, Kline & Company changed its name.ref
  • 1891: French, Richards & Company, founded in 1844 by Clayton French and William Richards, was acquired, providing the company with a greater portfolio of consumer brands.
  • 1875: Smith, Kline & Company: the business changed its name to reflect Mahlon Kline's contributions.
  • 1865: Mahlon Kline joined the business as a bookkeeper. Kline acquired a scientific knowledge of drugs and medicines by attending courses at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.
  • ?date?: Smith & Shoemaker: the company was renamed.
  • 1841: John K Smith & Company: When John Gilbert retired (withdrew?), John Smith was joined by his younger brother George.
  • 1830: John K Smith and his brother-in-law, John Gilbert, opened a drugstore in Philadelphia, selling drugs, paint, varnish and window glass.

GlaxoSmithKline plc

ToDo: Glaxo Holdings Ltd, ch-01047315 (Mar.1972); Glaxo Group Ltd, ch-00305979 (1935); in 1962, Glaxo Laboratories Ltd renamed as Glaxo Group Ltd.
  • ?dates?: Eschmann, surgical products; WH Deane (High Wycombe) Ltd, furniture manufacturing. Sold in AR-Jun.1985
  • 2000: GlaxoSmithKline plc: the Wellcome name disappeared from the drug business altogether when Glaxo Wellcome plc merged with SmithKline Beecham.

Glaxo Wellcome plc

  • 1999: Glaxo Wellcome had become the world's third-largest pharmaceutical company by revenues (behind Novartis and Merck), with a global market share of around 4 per cent.[28] Its products included Imigran (for the treatment of migraine), salbutamol (Ventolin) (for the treatment of asthma), Zovirax (for the treatment of coldsores), and Retrovir and Epivir (for the treatment of AIDS).
  • 1998: Polfa Poznan, a Polish pharmaceutical company, was acquired by Glaxo Wellcome. The deal created the largest pharmaceutical company in Poland.
  • Dec.1995: The Hazeltine business were sold.AR-Dec.1995
  • Sept.1995: Cascan GmbH & Co. KG: an additional 50% interest was acquired, bringing Glaxo's interest to 100%. [https://find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk/company/01047315 AR-Dec.1995}
  • Jan.1995: Afymax NV was acquired. AR-Dec.1995
  • Jun.1995: Glaxo Wellcome plc: the Wellcome Trust divested itself of any interest in pharmaceuticals by selling all remaining stock in Wellcome plc to Glaxo plc, the company's historic British rival.Wellcome plc, AR-Dec.1995 In Mar.1995, Welcome plc was acquired by Glaxo plc, now renamed Glaxo Wellcome plc.AR-Dec.1995
  • 1995: Sterling Winthrop's site in Upper Providence, Pennsylvania was acquired by SmithKline Beecham, to fulfil USA R&D expansion needs.
  • 1995: Affymax, a California-based leader in the field of combinatorial chemistry, was acquired by Glaxo Wellcome.[27]
  • 1995: Glaxo Wellcome restructured its R&D operation that year, cutting 10,000 jobs worldwide, closing its R&D facility in Beckenham, Kent, and opening a Medicines Research Centre in Stevenage, Hertfordshire.[24][25][26]
  • 1995: Glaxo Wellcome plc was formed from the merger of Glaxo and Wellcome.[23][11]

Glaxo plc

  • Jan.1995: Glaxo plc: Glaxo Holdings plc changed its name.AR-Dec.1995

Glaxo Holdings Ltd

  • Jan.1986: Wellcome Pharmaceuticals Ltd changed its name to Wellcome plc.Cert, Jan.1986
  • 1986: Wellcome plc: the Wellcome Foundation was floated on the stock market under a new name.
  • May.1985: The Wellcome Trust offered 20% of its 100% shareholding in Wellcome to the public in early 1986, following which Wellcome's shares would be listed on the London Stock Exchange.Wellcome Foundation Ltd Annual Report Aug.1985
  • Oct.1984: Coopers Animal Health: reached agreement during the year with IC plc to merge our respective worldwide animal health operations. The New business came into being in Oct.1984. Wellcome Foundation Ltd, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/archive/article/1985-01-08/15/10.html
  • Jan.1924: The Wellcome Foundation Ltd, https://opencorporates.com/companies/gb/00194814
  • Until the 1980s, the Wellcome Trust was the only shareholder of the Wellcome Foundation.

See https://web.archive.org/web/20170914232351/https://wellcome.ac.uk/about-us/history-wellcome, https://www.gracesguide.co.uk/Burroughs,_Wellcome_and_Co


  • 1983: Glaxo Inc, the American arm, moved to Research Triangle Park (US headquarters/research) and Zebulon (US manufacturing) in North Carolina.[12]
  • 1978: Meyer Laboratories Inc, a Florida-based ??xx??, was acquired.[52] The acquisition marked the beginning of Glaxo's USA operations. In 1980, the firm was renamed as "Glaxo Inc".
  • 1973: Glaxo decided to concentrate on the mainstream activities so sold Murphy Chemical Co in June to Pepro SA,[The Times, June 2, 1973] and BDH Chemicals to E Merck of Germany in September[The Times, 22 September 1973].
  • Dec.1978: Murphy Chemicals (East Africa) sold to Brooke Bond Liebig Kenya.ref
  • Dec.1977: [53]
  • [54]
  • [55]
  • Sept.1973: BDH Chemicals Ltd was sold to Merck AG's subsidiary, E Merck Ltd,OpenCorporates-sm.svg when Glaxo decided to concentrate on its mainstream activities.[56]
  • Mar.1972: Glaxo Holdings Ltd: Glaxo Group Ltd incorporated a holdco, with a view to obtaining a listing on the Stock Market.OpenCorporates-sm.svg

Glaxo Group Ltd

  • 1968: Farley's Infant Food Ltd, a Plymouth, UK-based manufacturer of baby product Farley's Rusks, baby rice, cereals and breadsticks, was purchased from the members of the Trahair family (70%).[57][58]
  • 1976: Farley Health Products Ltd: Glaxo consolidated its food businesses, adding Complan and Ostermilk to the Farley's operations.
  • Mar.1986: Boots The Chemist Ltd bought the Farley's interest from Glaxo. https://opencorporates.com/companies/gb/00905237
  • 1988: Complan sold to Boots. An outbreak of salmonella at the Kendal plant led to Boots buying both factories for just £18m and closing the Plymouth plant in 1990.[58] WP:Complan
  • 1994: Farley Health Products Ltd was acquired by Heinz. See https://www.foodmanufacture.co.uk/Article/2011/09/01/Baby-place, https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/eb011806/full/html
  • 1994: In India, Complan remained with Glaxo until 1994, when it was acquired by Heinz, who also acquired the UK brand in the same year.[1],[2]
  • 2002: a majority stake in the UK Complan Foods business was sold to the Saatchi brothers' SaatchInvest.[3]
  • 2011: Acquired by Danone in 2011.[4] Complan.com owned by Nutricia Ltd, owned by Danone SA. Nb: was United Dairies Ltd, then Cow & Gate Ltd. CH Re Gerber, Nestle, Cow & Gate origins, see here. Casilan: Trade name for a casein preparation used as a protein concentrate. Farex baby cereal was first produced by the company Glaxo in 1934. WP: Farex.
  • Oct.1967: BDH Ltd (British Drug Houses): Glaxo purchased Mead Johnson Company's 35% stake in BDH,[59] a laboratory reagents and chemicals business, acquiring the balance in Dec.1967.[60] In Jul.1961, BDH had sold a 35% tranch of itself to Mead Johnson,[61] rather than being taken over by the Warner-Lambert Company.[62] The company was renamed "BDH Chemicals Ltd",OpenCorporates-sm.svg with a new company, "BDH Pharmaceuticals",OpenCorporates-sm.svg being formed to market pharmaceutical products formerly supplied by British Drug Houses, Duncan, Flockhart & Co. and Evans Medical Ltd.[63]
  • Nov.1965: Vestric Ltd, a joint venture between Glaxo and B D H CHEMICALS LIMITED, was formed to hold their pharmaceutical wholesaling interests,[64] distributing a range of pharmaceutical products, chemists sundries and photographics. After Glaxo's takeover of BDH in 1968, Vestric Ltd became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Glaxo Group Ltd.
    • 1985: AAH Pharmaceuticals acquired pharmaceutical wholesaler Vestric Ltd from Glaxo plc, which continued the company's growth and led to the formation of AAH Pharmaceuticals Ltd. WP:AAH Pharmaceuticals
    • Nov.1991: Vestric was sold to BICC plc to act as an investment holdco, and was wound up in 2012.[65]
  • Jan.1963: Edinburgh Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd was acquired. EPI's main business was the production and sale of optiates, and the wholesale distribution of drugs throughout Scotland.[66]
  • 1962: Glaxo Group Ltd: Glaxo Laboratories Ltd was renamed.

Glaxo Laboratories Ltd

  • Mar.1961:
    Evans-Medical.svg
    Evans Medical Ltd, a Liverpool-based manufacturer and wholesale distributor of pharmaceuticals, formed in 1945 as "Evans Sons Lescher & Webb",OpenCorporates-sm.svg was acquired.[67] In Oct.1986, Evans Medical Ltd was subject to a management buyout,[68] but did not enjoy its freedom for long, being acquired by Medeva plc in Jan.1990;[69] itself acquired by Celltech Chiroscience plc in Jan.2000;[70] with Celltech being acquired by Belgian's UCB SA in May.2004.[71]
  • Aug.1960: J Gilbert Jackson Ltd, a wholesale chemists in Sheffield, was acquired. An offer was made for Lofthouse & Saltner Ltd, another wholesale chemists in Hull.[72]
  • 1958:
    Allen-and-Hanburys-trademark.svg
    Allen & Hanburys Ltd,OpenCorporates-sm.svg aka "Allenburys", was acquired.[73][74] The Allen & Hanbury acquisition would turn out to be an important one, as it brought a brilliant scientist, Dr David Jack, who directed Glaxo's research & development for 26 years. The business, founded in 1715 as an apothecary shop, "Plough Court Pharmacy", in London, was was one of the first manufacturers of cod liver oil in Britain, and was a leading manufacturer of infants foods, dietetic products, medicated pastilles, malt preparations and insulin.[75]
  • 1955:
    Murphy-Chemical-Company-1947.svg
    Murphy Chemical Company Ltd, a St Albans, Hertfordshire-based firm, was acquired.[76] Murphy Chemical specialised in the formulation, packing and distribution of agricultural and horticultural pesticidal chemicals, such as insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, including DDT, mercarbam, dinobuton.[77]
  • 1954: Complan, a fortified powder added to milk or water, was launched as a "complete planned food".
  • Jan.1947:
    London-Stock-Exchange.svg
    Glaxo Laboratories Ltd became the the firm's parent company, absorbing Joseph Nathan & Co. which was then liquidated;[78] and obtaining a listing on the London Stock Exchange.[79]
  • Oct.1935: Glaxo Laboratories LtdOpenCorporates-sm.svg was formed to take over the goodwill, trade marks and assets of the Glaxo laboratories operations.[80]
  • 1924: Ostermilk, a vitamin-fortified milk powder containing Ostelin Vitamin D, iron and ammonium citrate, was launched. By 1961, Ostermilk dominated the market, generating nearly half of Glaxo’s UK turnover.[58] In similar fashion to the Glaxo Baby Book, "The Ostermilk Book" was published.
  • 1924: Ostelin Liquid, a drop-dose vitamin D preparation, became Glaxo's first pharmaceutical product, after obtaining a license to a vitamin D extraction process from fish-liver oil.[81] The extract was also used to reinforce baby food.[75]
  • 1913: Joseph Nathan & Company Ltd went public, issuing shares.[78]
  • 1908: Glaxo Baby Book: Joseph Nathan and Co. formed a Glaxo department in London, publishing the first "baby book". Published until the 1970s, the booklet contained a mix of advice and advertising. Glaxo employed a nurse to answer the numerous questions about infant feeding and care that they were receiving from mothers.[58] pic
  • Oct.1906: Glaxo brand: selling dried milk as an infant food required a more appealing name than "Defiance", but an application to change the name to "Lacto" was denied, as similar names were already registered. The trademark "Glaxo" was eventually decided upon and registered. The populatiry of the milk powder was bolstered by a health scare in 1911 involving liquid milk, when powdered milk proved to be a safer alternative for bottle-feeding babies.[82]
  • 1904: Defiance Dried Milk: the milk from the dairy farms was freeze-dried and sold, mainly in bulk for catering and military customers. The milk powder grew in popularity as an infant food as its health advantages were realised.
  • 1873: Joseph Nathan & Company Ltd was founded as a general trading company in Wellington, New Zealand, by Joseph Edward Nathan. Nathan sold haberdashery, ironmongery and meat products shipped over from London, and invested the profits in land which he used for dairy farms.
  • 1861: Nathan moved to New Zealand and joined his brother-in-law in a general merchandising business, becoming a partner.
  • 1853: Joseph Nathan, the son of a London tailor, emigrated to Australia in 1853.
Additional Sources: "Trademarked: A History of Well-Known Brands, from Airtex to Wright's Coal Tar.", David Newton, The History Press, Feb.2008, ISBN: 978-0-7524-9612-2 ♦ Joseph Nathan and Co. Grace's Guide, Jul.22.2017.

Burroughs Wellcome & Company

  • 1959: Cooper, McDougall & Robertson Ltd, an animal health company founded in 1843, was acquired by the Wellcome Foundation to become more active in animal health.[83]
  • 1936: The Wellcome Trust: Sir Henry Wellcome's will left sole ownership to the UK medical research charity, a charitable foundation to support medical research worldwide.
  • 1924: The Wellcome Foundation Ltd was formed as a private company to coordinate Wellcome's expanding businesses and research activities.
  • 1920s: Burroughs Wellcome established research and manufacturing facilities in Tuckahoe, New York,[16]:18[17][18] which served as the USA headquarters until the company moved to Research Triangle Park in North Carolina in 1971.[19][20]
  • 1906: A Burroughs Wellcome subsidiary was created in New York.
  • 1904: Henry Wellcome hired Henry Dale, who discovered and studied, amongst other things, histamine and how nerve impulses are transmitted.
  • 1902: The Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories was formally opened.
  • 1894: The Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories, which focused on biological experimentation, especially early forms of vaccines, were established in Kent, UK.
  • 1889: A manufacturing facility was opened in Dartford, to make the new tabloid medication format.
  • Mar.1884: Tabloid, a new compressed tablet for medicines, was developed as an alternative to pills, and registered as a trademark in Mar.1884.[84] In Mar.1983, GlaxoSmithKline sold the trademark to Aspen Global Inc, a Japanese subsidiary of South African holdco Aspen Pharmacare Holdings Ltd.[85]
  • 1880: Burroughs, Wellcome & Company: Silas Burroughs, a Philadelphia pharmacist and friend, invited Wellcome to London to form a partnership. The idea was to exploit the UK market with American-made compounded medicines.
  • 1874: Henry Wellcome graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and joined McKesson & Robbins Inc, a leading pharmaceutical business, as a salesman.

SmithKline Beecham plc

  • 2009: ViiV Healthcare, a joint venture between GSK and Pfizer Inc, was launched. ViiV focused on delivering advances in treatment and care for HIV communities. viivhealthcare.comArchive-org-sm.svg
  • 2009: Stiefel Laboratories Inc, the world's largest independent dermatology drug company, was acquired. Stiefel was founded in 1847 by John David Stiefel as a candle company, later making medicated soaps. stiefel.comArchive-org-sm.svg See WP:Stiefel Laboratories
  • Oct.2008: Biotene, a leading over-the-counter treatment for dry mouth, was acquired from Laclede Inc,[86] a contract manufacturer of private label and custom formulations. The Biotene range included mouthwash, toothpaste, gel, spray and gum formulations for relieving dry mouth (xerostomi). biotene.comArchive-org-sm.svg
  • Oct.2008: Egyptian products business from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company was acquired, in a drive to boost GSK's presence in emerging markets.[86]
  • Dec.2006: Domantis Ltd,OpenCorporates-sm.svg a Cambridge, UK-based leader in developing antibody therapies, was acquired from its shareholders;[87] domantis.comArchive-org-sm.svg Praesis Pharmaceuticals, a biopharmaceuticals company and Reliant Pharmaceuticals, a producer of cardiovascular medicines, were acquired.
  • 2006: CNS Inc, producer of the Breathe Right nasal dilator strips and FiberChoice dietary fibre supplements, was acquired to boost GSK's consumer healthcare portfolio.
  • 2000: GlaxoSmithKline plc is formed through the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham.
  • 1999: SmithKline Beecham Clinical Laboratories and Diversified Pharmaceutical Services were sold to ??, as SmithKline Beecham sharpened its focus on pharmaceuticals and consumer healthcare.
  • 1998: Elephantiasis: SmithKline Beecham and the World Health Organisation announced a collaboration to eliminate lymphatic filariasis by 2020.
  • 1997: diaDexus, a joint venture between SmithKline Beecham and Incyte Pharmaceuticals, was formed to discover and market novel molecular diagnostics based on the use of genomics.
  • 1997: New Frontiers Science Park, SmithKline Beecham's research centre, was opened at Harlow in England.
  • 1996: SmithKline Beecham Healthcare Services is formed by combining the clinical laboratories, disease management and Diversified Pharmaceutical Services businesses.
  • 1996: Community Partnership was established by SmithKline Beecham to focus philanthropy on community-based healthcare.
  • ?date?: With the intention of focusing on human healthcare, SmithKline Beecham sells its animal health business.
  • Aug.1994: Sterling Health, the non-prescription business of Sterling Winthrop Inc, was acquired from Eastman Kodak Company, making SmithKline Beecham the 3rd-largest over-the-counter medicines company in the world, and number one in Europe and the international markets. The operations included Panadol analgesics, Phillips Milk of Magnesia, Valda products for coughs and colds and Stri-Dex skin treatments.[88]
  • 1994: Diversified Pharmaceutical Services Inc, a pharmaceutical benefits manager, was acquired by SmithKline Beecham.
  • 1989: SmithKline Beecham plc was formed by the merger of SmithKline Beckman and the Beecham Group plc.
  • 1988: International Clinical Laboratories Inc, one of SmithKline BioScience Laboratories' largest competitors, was acquired, increasing the company's size by 50%, and establishing SmithKline BioScience Laboratories as the industry leader.
  • 198?: SmithKline Beckman Corporation: after the Allergan merger, the company was renamed.
  • 1982: Allergan Inc, an eye and skincare business, was acquired and merged with Beckman Instruments Inc, a company specialising in diagnostics and measurement instruments and supplies. SmithKline acquired Allergan in 1982, an eye and skincare business, and merged with Beckman Instruments Inc, a company specialising in diagnostics and measurement instruments and supplies.
  • 1969: Smith Kline & French enters the clinical laboratories business through the purchase of seven laboratories in the USA and one in Canada.
  • 1960: Norden Laboratories was acquired, enabling Smith Kline & French to move into the animal health business.
  • 1929: Smith Kline & French Laboratories: Smith, Kline & French Company is renamed, and becomes more focused on research.
  • 1919: Mahlon Kline begins the novel practice of sending pharmaceutical samples through the mail to doctors across the USA.
  • 1910: The Blue Line, a range including poison ivy lotion, iron tablets and lozenges, was added to the Smith, Kline & French portfolio.
  • 1891: Smith, Kline & French Company: post-acquisition, the company was renamed.
  • 1891: French, Richards & Company was acquired, providing a greater portfolio of consumer brands.
  • 1875: Smith, Kline & Company: Mahlon Kline took on additional responsibilities as a salesman and added many new and large accounts. On his becoming a partner, the company was renamed.
  • 1870: Mahlon K Smith & Company: Mahlon Smith, John and George Smith's nephew, was managing the company.
  • 1865: Smith & Shoemaker: Mahlon Kline joins the firm as its bookkeeper.
  • 1841: John K Smith & Company: John's younger brother, George, joined him, and the company was accordingly renamed.
  • 1830: Smith & Gilbert: John K Smith and ?? Gilbert opened a drugstore in Philadelphia.

Articles

Guardian

  • Dec.20.2018: Pfizer deal paves way for Glaxo break-up. Britain’s biggest drugs company struck a landmark deal yesterday with a leading American rival that prepares the way for the break-up of GlaxoSmithKline. Glaxo agreed to merge its consumer healthcare division with Pfizer's through a joint venture which will be the world’s biggest over-the-counter medicines business. Glaxo also plans to demerge the business within 3 years of the deal closing in the second half of next year through a separate British stock market listing, which would create a new FTSE 100 company valued in the region of £40bn. Alex Ralph, Martin Strydom, The Guardian.
  • Dec.04.2018: Glaxo drug deal fails to tempt City. GSK has agreed to buy Tesaro. ...determined to rebuild its cancer drugs portfolio. It also agreed to sell its consumer nutrition business to Unilever. The sale followed a review after it bought out Novartis, its consumer healthcare partner, in March. Alex Ralph, The Times.
  • GSK reaches agreement with Novartis to acquire full ownership of its Consumer Healthcare Business, https://www.gsk.com/en-gb/investors/
  • Feb.05.2014: GlaxoSmithKline hails drug pipeline after 2013's China scandal. GSK, one of the UK's largest companies, announced it had 10 promising drugs and vaccines in late-stage development. Chinese authorities have accused GSK of being a "criminal godfather", running a £320m slush fund to bribe doctors and hospital officials with cash payments and visits to prostitutes, in order to sell its products. GSK has reported itself to the Serious Fraud Office, as well as the US Department of Justice and the Securities and Exchange Commission, but said on Wednesday it was unable to estimate the final bill for the China scandal. GSK's chief executive Andrew Witty said GSK expected to increase investment in its two Scottish factories in Montrose and Irvine, in the coming years. He also batted away concerns about volatility in emerging markets, following recent currency turbulence in Argentina, Indonesia and Turkey. "The core fundamentals" of emerging markets, he said, citing their growing population, rising per-capita incomes and increasing demand for healthcare, all played well with GSK. Jennifer Rankin, The Guardian.

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