Yıldız Holding

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Yıldız Holding is a Turkish conglomerate operating in 130+ countries, headquartered in Istanbul. The company manufactures food products as well as consumer goods, and has its own retail, private equity and real estate operations. It is amongst the largest food manufacturers in Central and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

Yıldız Holding has 49 product categories, 320 brands and thousands of different products, available in 130+ countries. The company operates through the following divisions:ref

  • Food: link
  • Non-Food: ref
    • Gözde Venture Capital
    • SCa Yıldız Kağıt
    • Aktül Kağıt, manufactures toilet paper from 100% pure cellulose, using Shoe Press technology
  • Wholesale and Retail: link
    • ŞOK Supermarkets
    • Bizim Toptan Wholesale
  • Partnerships. link



100%: The Ülker Family.ref,ref,ref


  • Yıldız Holding AS,[1] [OC], reg. Turkey Flag-Turkey.svg
    •  ??
      • Burlington Biscuits (Cayman) Ltd,[2] reg. Cayman Islands Flag-Cayman-Islands.svg
      • United Biscuits (Equity) Ltd, reg. Cayman Islands Flag-Cayman-Islands.svg
        • United Biscuits Group (Investments) Ltd, OC
          • United Biscuits Finance Ltd, OC
          • Deluxestar Ltd, holdco, OC
            • Solvecorp Ltd, OC
              • Runecorp Ltd, OC
          • McVitie & Price Ltd, OC
            • Finalrealm Ltd, OC
              • United Biscuits (Holdings) Ltd, OC
                • UB Overseas Ltd, OC
                • UB Investments plc, OC
                  • UB Group Ltd, OC
            • United Biscuits (UK) Ltd, OC
              • UB Snackfoods Irelnd Ltd, reg. Ireland
              • United Biscuits Italy Srl, reg. Italy
              • United Biscuits Germany GmbH, reg Germany
    • UMV Global Food Investments Ltd, OC, reg. Jersey Flag-Jersey.svg
      • Pladis Foods Ltd, OC
        • UMV Global Foods Holding Company Ltd, OC
          • UMV Global Foods Company Ltd, OC
            • United Biscuits Luxco SCA, [OC], reg. Luxembourg Flag-Luxembourg.svg
            • United Biscuits Topco Ltd, OC
              • United Biscuits Bondco Ltd, OC
                • United Biscuits VLNCo Ltd, OC
                  • United Bidscuits Holdco Ltd, OC
                    • United Biscuits Holdco 2 Ltd, OC
                      • United Biscuits Bidco Ltd, OC
                        • Regentrealm Ltd, OC
ToDo: Reports

Pladis Foods Ltd


Pladis's core brand is McVitie’s. The group also makes, markets and distributes other brands, including Ulker and Godiva, Carr’s, BN, Verkade and Go Ahead! Pladis is located across Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the USA and Asia Pacific. Products

  • Jan.2016: Yıldız brought together United Biscuits, Ülker, Godiva Chocolatier and DeMet’s Candy Company as one global business under the brand name of "Pladis".
  • 2014: Yildiz acquired United Biscuits.ref

Godiva Chocolatier

Godiva Chocolatier is a renowned Belgian manufacturer of chocolates and related products, founded in 1926 in Brussels, Belgium, by the Draps family. Godiva owns and operates 600+ shops in the USA, Canada, Europe and Asia, and is available from 10,000+ speciality retailers.ref

Despite never airing a commercial in its entire history, Godiva is the 2nd-best known chocolate brand, with Ghirardelli and Nestle taking 2nd and 3rd places. Godiva's factory in Brussels undertakes production for the Japanese, European and Pacific markets, output of 6m kg per year. The US factory produces for the American market, output of 8m kg per year.ref

In Feb.2019, it was announced that Asia-Pacific (Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand) retail and distribution licenses for the Godiva chocolate brand had been sold to MBK Partners Ltd, a North Asian private equity buyout firm. Godiva’s Brussels production plant is part of the deal. Yildiz was selling assets under the terms of a $6.5bn loan restructuring agreement. Godiva’s Japan unit is the largest of the businesses up for sale. Proceeds from the sale of the Asian assets will go toward Yildiz Holding’s debt restructuring, and to help Godiva expand in other markets.ref

United Biscuits

United Biscuits is a British multinational food manufacturer, makers of McVitie's biscuits, Jacob's Cream Crackers, and Twiglets, amongst others. The company was listed on the London Stock Exchange. In Nov.2014, the company was acquired by Yıldız Holding and is now part of Pladis.

United Biscuits is the parent company of McVitie's, whose brands include Jaffa Cakes, Hobnobs, Rich Tea, Penguin's Jacob's Cream Crackers, Carr's water biscuits,ref Crawford's,ref Meredith and Drew and Go ahead!

  • Jun.2016: United Biscuits became part of Pladis, with a view to a flotation in London by 2020.[1],ref
  • Nov.2014: Yıldız Holding bought United Biscuits from Blackstone and PAI Partners.[2],ref,ref
  • Dec.2012: KP Snacks Ltd was sold to Intersnack Group GmbH & Co KG.ref
  • Oct.2006: Blackstone Group and PAI Partners SAS bought out Cinven and MidOcean Partners LP's shareholdings.ref MidOcean Partners and Cinven more than doubled their money - leaving UB with a £213 million pension fund deficit.[3]ref,ref
  • Sept.2006: UB Southern European biscuits business was sold to Kraft Foods Inc.ref Kraft exchanged its 25% holding in United Biscuits for the European rights to Nabisco brands such as Oreo cookies, which include UB's canned meat, tomato and fruit juice businesses.ref
  • Feb.2006: Nik Naks and Wheat Crunchies brands were purchased from Golden Wonder.
  • Sept.2004: Jacob's Biscuit Group's UK operations were bought from Groupe Danone; brands included Cream Crackers and Twiglets.ref
  • Aug.2004: Benelux Snacks business was sold to Roger & Roger.
  • Aug.2004: Triunfo Productos Alimentares SA in Portugal, was acquired.
  • Jul.2004: UB Snackfoods Ireland Ltd, a new United Biscuits subsidiary, was formed in Dublin, Ireland.
  • Mar.2002: United Biscuits (China) Ltd and its subsidiaries was sold to Nabisco.
  • May.2001: Fazer, Finland was sold to Danone.
  • Mar.2001: Young’s Bluecrest Seafood: United Biscuit's 44% interest in Young’s Bluecrest Seafood Holdings Ltd was sold to ??, in order to concentrate on the sweet biscuit sector.ref
  • Feb.2001: San, Poland was sold to Danone.
  • 2001: Cinven Group Ltd (30%), MidOcean Partners LP (30%), PAI Partners SAS (15%), together with US food giant Kraft Foods Group Inc (25%), bought United Biscuits from the Finalrealm consortium.ref,ref
  • Nov.2000: UB Malaysia, UB Hungary and UB Singapore were sold to Danone.
  • Jul.2000: Nabisco’s European, Middle East and North African businesses were acquired.
  • Jun.2000: Snack Foods SpA and UB Snack Foods GmbH were sold to Danone. The Donauwörth factory in Germany and a commercial office in Italy.
  • May.2000: Nordic A/S and Denmark A/S, the businesses in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, Italy, Malaysia, were sold to Danone SA. The TUC and Cheddars brands were also sold to Danone (Jacob's); Mini-Cheddars and certain lines of savoury products in the UK were excluded from the deal.
  • Apr.2000: Finalrealm, a consortium of financial investors including Cinven Group Ltd and Nabisco Holdings Corporation, acquired United Biscuits, including Nabisco's European businesses.ref
  • Nov.1999: The chilled fish business was sold to Northern Foods plc. The operation supplied added-value seafood products to Marks & Spencer and Waitrose.
  • Dec.1999: The frozen and chilled food businesses, excluding chilled fish operations, were sold to the HJ Heinz Company.
  • Sept.1999: Acquired the Hungarian biscuit business from German confectionery company, Stollwerck. United Biscuits appointed Stollwerck as its sales and distribution agent in Germany.
  • 1999: Young’s Bluecrest Seafood: the Young's seafood business was merged with Legal & General Ventures' Bluecrest business to create the largest seafood business in the UK. United Biscuits and Legal & General Ventures each held 44% of the business, with management and other finance providers hodling the balance.
  • 1998: Delacre, the Continental European biscuit business, was acquired from the Campbell Soup Company. Delacre had operations in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France and exports to the USA.
  • 1998: UB Japan Ltd: United Biscuits bought out Meiji McVitie's 50% stake of the venture to form a new company.
  • 1997: Biscuiterie Nantaise (BN), a French biscuits business, was acquired from PepsiCo Inc in exchange for certain continental European snack operations, and the sale of the Smiths Snackfood Company, Australia.
  • Nov.1995: Keebler Company was sold to Flowers Industries and Artal Luxembourg SA via a leveraged buyout,ref after United Biscuits failed to make headway against Nabisco in the American market.ref
  • 1995: Original Pretzel Company in Australia was acquired.
  • 1994: Nibb-It Snacks, a Dutch snackfood manufacturer, was acquired. Shareholdings in Fazer Biscuits (Finland) were increased to 70%; and in San, a Polish biscuit manufacturer, to 90%.
  • Mar.1993: #Kraft General Foods International bought Terry's of York, after UB ran into financial difficulties.[4],[The Times, March 04, 1993]
  • 1993: Smith's Snackfood Company, Australia's leading snackfood manufacturer incorporating an Italian snacks business, was acquired. Derwent Valley Foods, the UK owner of the Phileas Fogg snack brand. The shareholdings in Oxford Biscuits (Denmark) and Gyori Keksz (Hungary) were increased to 100%.
  • 1991: Acquisitions: three European biscuit companies were acquired: Fazer Biscuits (Finland), Oxford Biscuits (Denmark) and Gyori Keksz (Hungary). A joint venture also established in Éire.
  • 1990: Verkade, a leading biscuit and confectionery company in the Netherlands, was acquired.
  • Aug.1989: Wimpy, Pizzaland and Perfect Pizza: United Biscuits plc's restaurant, manufacturing and distributing operations were sold to Grand Metropolitan plc. United Biscuits owned ~400 Wimpy hamburger restaurants,ref Pizzaland restaurants, and Perfect Pizza outlets.ref
  • 1988: Ross Young's, a frozen food company, was acquired from Hanson.ref A 60% stake in United Biscuits China, with a further 30% stake bought in 1991.
  • Aug.1988: Callard & Bowser was purchased from the TLC Group, a New York investment company which owned Beatrice International Holdings.[5]
  • Jan.1982: Terry's of York: Joseph Terry & Sons Ltd, a confectionery company, was acquired from the Colgate-Palmolive Company to form the base of the confectionery division.ref,ref
  • Jul.1977: Wimpy Hamburgers: the last 100 franchise outlets were acquired from J Lyons & Company.[6]
  • Dec.1976: Wimpy Hamburgers, the fast food restaurant chain, was acquired by Keebler Company from J Lyons & Company. (Wimpy is now owned by South Africa's Famous Brands Ltd,ref,ref,ref,ref
  • 1974: Keebler Company, a USA cookie and cracker manufacturer, was acquired by United Biscuits (Holdings) Ltd, with a view to breaking into the American market.
  • 1972: Carr's of Carlisle, makers of Carr's Table Water biscuits, was acquired from James Goldsmith's Cavenham Foods.
  • 1968: KP Snacks (Kenyon Son & Craven Ltd) was acquired.
  • 1967: Meredith & Drew, a UK crisp manufacturer, was acquired.
  • 1965: William MacDonald & Sons was acquired, bringing the Penguin brand to the group.
  • 1962: William Crawford & Sons, best known for its shortbread, was acquired by United Biscuits.
  • 1948: United Biscuit Company was formed by the merger of two Scottish family businesses: McVitie & PriceWikipedia-W.svg and MacFarlane Lang.
Sources: United Biscuits.arch
ToDo: UnitedBiscuits.comArchive-org-sm.svg, Brands, HistoryArchive-org-sm.svg, Short History + LogosArchive-org-sm.svg, Logopedia, ReportsArchive-org-sm.svg


United Biscuits (Holdings) Ltd. manufactures and distributes biscuits, snacks and frozen foods. Brands include McVitie's, Jacob's, Carr's, McCoy's, Hula Hoops, McVitie's Jaffa Cakes, KP, Mini Cheddars, go ahead!, Verkade, Sultana, BN, and Delacre. The company was founded in 1948 and is headquartered in Hayes, the United Kingdom.
  • Nov.2007: United Biscuits acquired McVitie's from the Campbell Soup Company.ref Ülker Group's parent company, purchased all international subsidiaries, facilities, commercial patents and all other assets of the renowned Godiva Belgian chocolatier.ref
  • 1966: The Campbell Soup Company bought a 33% shareholding in the company.
  • McVitie's, Website.uk, McVitie'sWikipedia-W.svg
ToDo: McVitie's story, https://mcvities.co.uk/about; Logos: link, link, link, link

Brands: Boasters, Chocolate Digestives, Club, Cookies, Fruit Shortcake, Jaffa Cakes, Minis, Gems, Ginger Nuts, Gold, Hobnobs, Nibbles, Penguin, Rich Tea, Thins, Victoria Assortments.

  • 1990: Godiva began to grow dramatically.
  • 1966: Godiva opened its first boutique in New York.
  • 1926: Godiva was created by chocolate maker Joseph Daps in Brussels.
  • ^ British biscuits get set to take on the world. Deirdre Hipwell, The Times, Jun.08.2016.
  • ^ Turkish food giant gobbles up United Biscuits. The maker of McVitie's, Twiglets and Penguin biscuits has been bought by Yildiz for around £2bn. Ben Marlow, The Telegraph, Nov.03.2014.
  • ^ Buyout firms double their money from United Biscuits sale. Caroline Merrell, The Times, Oct.26.2006.
  • ^ Kraft buys Terry's of York chocolates. Bloomberg News, The New York Times, Mar.04.1993.
  • ^ [Joseph Terry & Sons Ltd TLC Group to Sell Confection Maker.] The New York Times, Aug.03.1988.
  • ^ Lyons sell last of Wimpy. 'via Google News', The Glasgow Herald, Jul.09.1977.