Mondelēz International Inc

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Mondelēz is an American multinational confectionery, biscuits, chewing gum, food, and powdered beverages company based in Illinois. It was formed from the global snack and food brands of § Kraft Foods Inc, as a result of the Oct.2012 spin-off of Kraft's North American grocery operations.
The name "Mondelez" name was suggested by Kraft Foods employees, and is derived from the Latin word mundus ("world") and delez, a fanciful modification of the word "delicious".

GMO Labelling: Kraft donated $1,950,500 to a political campaign group opposing a Canadian initiative calling for the labelling of foods containing genetically modified ingredients.[2]

Taxation: Mondelēz tax bill is £0.00.[3] See Dispatches @ 22:00.

Deforestation: Mondelez uses enormous amounts of palm oil, much of it sourced from disreputable firm Wilmar International Ltd.[4] "Chocolate's Dark Secret", an investigation by Mighty Earth, showed that the chocolate industry has been the primary driver behind forest destruction,[5] buying cocoa grown through the illegal deforestation of national parks and other protected forests. Mondelez is “not committed to certified sustainable palm oil”, and refuses to declare where the palm oil used in its products comes from.ref

Greenwashing: Mighty Earth's followup to the chocolate industry's passionate vows, given as a result of the investigation, has found that many are just hot air and empty phrases. Not only has forest destruction for cocoa continued unabated, but there are many new ones. Notable foot-draggers are #Cadbury, SucDen, Mars Inc and Ferrero Rocher.[6]


The portfolio includes several $bn brands.[7][8](todo, Kraft brands (2009)
  • Biscuits & Cookies
  • Barni
  • Barnum's Animals Crackers
  • BelVita
  • Cheese Nips
  • Chips Ahoy!
  • Club Social
  • Enjoy Life Foods
  • Filipinos biscuits
  • Ginger Snaps
  • Graham crackers
  • Handi-Snacks
  • Honey Maid
  • Kinh Do
  • Lorna Doone
  • LU (Lefèvre-Utile)
  • LU Petit Beurre
  • Mallomars
  • Newtons
  • Nilla cookies
  • Nutter Butter
  • Oreo cookies
  • Peek Freans (Canada)
  • Perfect Snacks
  • Prince de LU
  • Ritz Crackers
  • Tate's Bake Shop
  • Teddy Grahams
  • Tiger
  • Triscuit crackers
  • TUC crackers
  • Wheat Thins
  • Beverages
  • BournVita
  • Tang (powdered beverage)
  • Chocolates
  • 5 Star
  • Alpen Gold
  • Bournville
  • Cadbury
  • Cadbury Dairy Milk
  • Cadbury Roses
  • Côte d'Or
  • Freia
  • Fry's
  • Lacta (chocolate)
  • Marabou
  • Milka
  • Suchard
  • Terry’s ref
  • Toblerone
  • Candy & Gum
  • Chicletsref,ref
  • Clorets
  • Dentyne gum
  • Dirol ws
  • Hall's
  • Hollywood
  • Maynards Bassett's
  • Pascall
  • Sour Patch Kids
  • Stride (gum and cough drops)
  • Swedish Fish
  • Trebor Mints,ref
  • Trident (Stimorol) gum
  • Other
  • Comet Cones link
  • Easy Cheese
  • Green & Black's
  • Miracel Whip (Germany)
  • Philadelphia cream cheese
  • Mikado (Europe) link
  • Royal Baking Powder
  • Sottilette ws
  • † Licensed brands.



Total float: 71.7%
Source: MarketScreener.svg, Mar.2020


ToDo: Investors, Reports


Mondelez International Inc

  • Aug.2017:
    Back-to-Nature-2010.svg Deals-Arrow-Right.svg
    Back to Nature Foods Company LLC was sold to B&G Foods Inc. Back to Nature Foods Company was formed in 2012 by private equity firm Brynwood Partners Management LLC and Mondelēz as a joint venture. In 2013, Mondelēz contributed the SnackWell's brand to the JV. SnackWell's was launched in 1992 by Nabisco as one of the original brands in the low-fat cookies and crackers categories.
  • Jan.2017: Bega Cheese Ltd, an Australian dairy company, bought most of Mondelez International's Australia and New Zealand grocery and cheese business. The famous Vegemite brand was part of the transaction.ref,ref
  • Aug.2016:
    Kinh Do Corporation: Mondelez took 100% ownership of Kinh Do Corp's snack business after acquired the outstanding 20% stake. The company was subsequently rebranded as "Mondelez Ki Do".[9] In Nov.2014, Mondelez had acquired an 80% stake in the Vietnamese confectionary company. Kinh Do's brands include Kinh Do mooncakes and biscuits, Cosy biscuits, Solite soft cakes and AFC crackers.[10] kinhdo.vnArchive-org-sm.svg,
  • Jul.2015: Jacobs Douwe Egberts Mondelēz merged its coffee business with Dutch firm Douwe Egberts.ref
  • Oct.2012: Mondelēz International Inc started trading as MDLZ on Oct.1st on the New York Stock Exchange.ref

ToDo: About+HistoryArchive-org-sm.svg

Kraft Foods Inc

In Oct.2012:
  • § Mondelez International Inc: The remainder of Kraft Foods Inc was renamed, and refocused as an international confectionery and snack company.[11]
  • Kraft-Foods-Group-2012.svg
    Kraft Foods Group Inc: Kraft Foods Inc spun off its North American grocery business to a new company focused chiefly on grocery products for the North American market.

Aug.2011 Split: Kraft Foods Inc announced plans to split its global snacks group off from its North American grocery business, creating two independent, publicly traded companies: a snack food company and a grocery company.[12][13]
Feb.2010 #Cadbury plc was acquired, with partial funding for the takeover provided by the Royal Bank of Scotland.[14] Integration of the two companies began immediately.
Liars: In Mar.2011, Kraft outsourced production to Poland just days after takeover, selling the Cabury factory which it had sworn blind not to close, in order to win shareholder support. Kraft flatly refused to explain its lies.[15]
Aug.2008 Ralcorp Holdings Inc bought Kraft's Post Cereals brands (Grape-Nuts, Honey Bunches of Oats), after Kraft succumbed to pressure from investors.ref
Nov.2007 Danone's Biscuit & Cereals business was acquired from Groupe Danone. Brands included Lefèvre-Utile (LU), TUC and Prince, plus operations and manufacturing facilities in 20+ countries. The acquisition reunited Kraft with LU, Belin and other European brands which had been sold to Groupe Danone in Jun.1989.[16][17]
Altria Group Inc (formerly Philip Morris Companies Inc) spun off its 88.1% shareholding in Kraft Foods, with all shares being distributed to Altria's shareholders. Kraft Foods' shares began trading on the New York Stock Exchange in Apr.2007.
2005 Life Savers: the USA business was sold to the Wm Wrigley Jr Company.ref
2003 Rainforest Alliance: Kraft Foods announced a partnership to support the development of sustainable coffee production in Mexico, Colombia, Brazil and Central America.
2002 Lanes Food Group was acquired by Kraft Foods, gaining control of the Nabisco brands licensed to Lanes since 1991.
2001 Acquisitions: the coffee businesses in Central and Eastern Europe and North Africa were strengthened through the acquisition of Nova Brasilia in Bulgaria; Nova Brasilia, Classic Brasilier and Prestige in Romania; and Samar and Gaouar in Morocco.
Jun.2001 Kraft Foods Inc stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange.
2001 Philip Morris Companies Inc made an initial public offering for Kraft Foods Inc, retaining a 83.9% stake in Kraft.
2000 #Nabisco, maker of Oreo cookies, was bought and merged with Kraft.
1999 Mova, a snacks business in Ukraine, was acquired.
Jul.1997 Log Cabin Syrup was sold to Aurora Foods Inc.
19?? The candy and tablespreads divisions were sold to ??
1996 Lender's Bagels was sold to the Kellogg Company. The sale completed Kraft's exit from baked goods.[18]
1996 Lacta, a Brazilian firm, was acquired, strengthening Kraft's presence in the growing Latin American chocolate market.
Bakery Division: Kraft Foods sold most of its bakery business to CPC International Inc,ref including Entenmann's baked goods, Freihofer's sweet baked products, Oroweat and Freihofer's breads, and Boboli Italian pizza crusts. Lender’s Bagels were excluded from the sale.ref,[18]
Jan.1995 Kraft Foods Inc: Kraft General Foods Inc was reorganised into one operating company, and changed its name. Kraft Foods North America was reorganised into 12 business divisions; Kraft Foods International (formerly Kraft General Foods International) was reorganised into 4 regional units.[19]

Kraft General Foods Inc

  •  ??.1995: Foodservice unit was sold to HJ Heinz Company.
  •  ??.1994: Frozen dinners unit was sold to HJ Heinz Company.
  • 1994: Lyons Instant Coffee business in the UK was acquired from Lyons Tetley.
  • 1994: Poiana, Romania's leading confectioner: a majority interest was acquired.
  • 1993: #RJR Nabisco's cold cereal business, mainly Shredded Wheat and Shreddies cereals, was acquired.[20]
  • 1993: Birds Eye division was sold to Dean Foods Company.Craft Machine Inc
  • Sept.1993: Breyers ice-cream division, including Sealtest, was sold to Unilever, who merged it with its Gold Bond-Good Humor Ice Cream Company, creating Good Humor-Breyers Ice Cream Company. Unilever also gained a license to two additional Kraft ice cream brand names, Light n' Lively and Knudsen.[21]
  • 1993: #Terry's of York, a major UK confectioner based in Yorkshire, was acquired. In 2005, all production was shifted to Poland, amongst other low-cost labour places. Poland's Animal Welfare Ranking is "C".ref
  • 1993: #Freia Marabou, Scandinavia’s premier confectioner, was acquired, along with five other confectionery companies in the newly-opened Central and Eastern European markets during the year: Csemege in Hungary, Figaro in Slovakia, Kaunas in Lithuania, Olza in Poland and Republika in Bulgaria.ref
  • 1992: Splendid, the 2nd-largest Italian coffee manufacturer, and El Caserio, a leader in process cheese in Spain, were acquired. Fourteen other acquisitions, including the Carambra brand, were also made during the same year.ref
  • Aug.1990: Jacobs Suchard AG was acquired by Kraft General Foods International,[22] making the company number one in European roast and ground coffee and a leader in chocolate confectionery. Product lines acquired included chocolate brands Milka and Toblerone.
  • Jun.1989: Groupe Danone purchased various European brands, including LU, Belin and others.[16][17]
  • Mar.1989: Kraft General Foods Inc: Philip Morris Companies combined Kraft Inc and #General Foods Corporation (which Philip Morris had acquired in 1985), creating the largest food company in the USA and Canada, and the 2nd-largest in the world.

Kraft Inc

  • Dec.1988: Philip Morris Companies Inc, the tobacco corporation, acquired Kraft Inc, creating the world’s largest consumer products company. Kraft was delisted, ...
  • 1988: Duracell was sold to Duracell Holdings Corporation, a portfolio company of private equity firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. The sale saw Kraft returning to being "all food" for the first time in 30+ years. (In 1989, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts listed Duracell in an initial public offering; In 1996, the Gillette Company bought Duracell; in 2005, Gillette Company was itself acquired by Procter & Gamble.)
  • 1985: Invernizzi SpA of Melzo, Italy, the largest Italian cheese company, was acquired.
  • 1986: Kraft Inc: Dart & Kraft changed its name back to the original "Kraft Inc" after the Premark spinoff.

Dart & Kraft Inc

  • Nov.1986:
    Premark International Inc: Dart & Kraft spun off four of its non-food businesses into a new entity (retaining Duracell batteries): Tupperware plastic food storage containers; Hobart and Vulcan-Hart commercial food equipment; West Bend appliances and exercise equipment; and Ralph Wilson Plastics plastics, producing Wilsonart brand decorative plastic laminates.[23] In 1999, Premark International Inc was bought by Illinois Tool Works Inc;[24] and in 2001, Hobart became a part of Illinois Tool Works' Food Equipment group. Premark InternationalArchive-org-sm.svg Hobart CorporationArchive-org-sm.svg
  • Jan.1986:
    KitchenAid was sold to the Whirlpool Corporation.[25]
  • 1985: Lender's Bagels was bought from its founders Marvin and Murray Lender, allowing them to spend more time on community development and non-profit work.[18]
  • 1981:
    Hobart Corporation was acquired, bringing its KitchenAid division, formed in 1919, into the Dart & Kraft fold.[26]
  • 1980s: Acquisitions: Churny premium cheeses, Lender's Bagels, Frusen Gladje ice cream, Celestial Seasonings tea.
  • Sept.1980: Dart & Kraft Inc: Kraft Inc merged with Dart Industries IncWikipedia-W.svg of California (formerly "Rexall Drug & Chemical Company"), a diversified company manufacturing goods including home appliances, plastic products, and batteries.[27] Product lines: Kraft products, Duracell, Tupperware, Hobart, West Bend and Wilsonart.[28]
Additional Sources: Premark International Inc. Accessed Aug.22.2019.

Kraft Inc

  • Oct.1976: Kraft Inc: Kraftco Corporation changed its name to emphasize the trademark the company had been known for and because dairy, rather than cheese, was now only a minor part of the company's sales. The Kraft Foods division ceased to exist, with its functions being divided amongst other divisions.[19]

Kraftco Corporation

  • Jul.1976: Metro Containers, formerly "Metro Glass Company", was sold to the Midland Glass Company.[29]
  • 1969: Kraftco Corporation: National Dairy Products Corporation changed its name to reflect that the company marketed more than just dairy products, as well as its international scope.

National Dairy Products Corporation

  • 1961: Southern Oil Company in Manchester, England, was acquired.
  • 1961: Dominion Dairies of Canada was acquired, marking the first effort to expand into fluid milk and ice cream outside the USA.
  • 1961 Green's Products Ltd, the largest canner and distributor of tuna fish and salmon in Australia, was acquired to enter the fish business.[30]
  • 1960s: Diversification: Product development became intense, launching fruit jellies, fruit preserves, marshmallows, barbecue sauces and Kraft Singles, a brand of individually wrapped cheese slices.ref During the decade, the company also expanded in many markets worldwide.
  • 1956: Metro Glass Company, a maker of glass containers used by National Dairy, was acquired.[30] Subsequently renamed as "Metro Containers".
  • 1955: Kraft Foods de Mexico was formed, and a processing plant near Monterey, Mexico was opened.
  • 1954: Cracker Barrel natural cheese was introduced in the USA.
  • 1952: Ovson Egg, an American food processing company, was acquired. Ovson Egg was founded in 1919 to provide frozen, canned and dried eggs to manufacturers of products such as cookies, cakes, custards, egg noodles, beverages, ice cream, macaroni, mayonnaise, salad dressing and puddings.
  • 1950s: Sliced Process Cheese and Cheez Whiz processed cheese sauce were launched.
  • 1950: Acquisitions: 168 companies had been taken over and consolidated.
  • 1935: Sealtest brand of ice cream was launched as a unified national brand to replace the firm's numerous regional brands.ref, logo
  • May.1930:
    #Kraft-Phenix Cheese Corporation was acquired, making National Diary Products Corporation the largest dairy company in the world, accounting for 40% of the USA's annual cheese consumption.[31]
  • 1926-1930: Diversification: National Dairy began acquiring companies outside of the dairy industry, purchasing sausage manufacturer Deerfoot Farms of Boston. It also formed National Juice Corporation to produce orange juice in Tampa, Florida, which was then distributed through regular milk routes.
  • 1927: Velveeta Cheese Company was acquired, four years after it had been incorporated. VelveetaWikipedia-W.svg
  • 1924-1931:
    Acquisitions: WE Hoffman of Pennsylvania (1924); Dunkin Ice Cream of Illinois (1925); Sheffield Farms of New York (1925); Breyer's Ice Cream of Philadelphia (1926);[32] Breakstone Brothers of New York (1926); General Ice Cream of New York (1928); Hiland Dairy of Kentucky (1929); Harding Ice Cream of Nashville (?date?); and Consolidated Dairy Products of New York (1931).[30]
  • Dec.1923: National Dairy Products Corporation was formed by a merger of the Hydrox Corporation with the Rieck-McJunkin Dairy Company, of Pittsburgh, two of the largest manufacturers and distributors of ice cream and dairy products in the USA.[33] The new company was then listed on the New York Stock Exchange.[34]
  •  ??.1923: McInnerney sold the idea of consolidating the dairy products industry to Wall Street, with Goldman-Sachs, Lehman Brothers, and Tobey and Kirk underwriting the business.[35]
  • 1911: Hydrox Corporation: Thomas H McInnerney moved to Chicago with an interest in a coal company which operated an ice cream division; he traded his interest in coal for the control of the ice cream portion of the business. By 1920, the business was turning over $1m a year.[34]
Kraft-Phenix Cheese Company
In 1872, William Lawrence of Chester, New York accidentally invented cream cheese. By 1880, Lawrence's company, the "Empire Cheese Company" of South Edmeston, New York, where he manufactured the product, was distributing his cream cheese. In 1903, the Phenix Cheese Corporation bought Lawrence's business and, with it, the Philadelphia trademark.

  • 1948: Kraft Foods Company: Kraft Cheese Company changed its name yet again, to reflect its diversified food product lines.[19]
  • 1945: Kraft Cheese Company: Kraft-Phenix Cheese Corporation changed its name.[19]
  • 1934: Kohler-Werke of Lindenberg, Germany was acquired, to establish Kraft Kase-Werke.
  • 1933: Miracle Whip salad dressing was introduced in the USA.
  • 1930:
    #National Diary Products Corporation acquired Kraft-Phenix Cheese Corporation.
  • 1928: Kraft-Phenix Cheese Company: Kraft Cheese Company changed its name to reflect the acquisition of Phenix Cheese Corporation.
Kraft Cheese Company
  • 1928: Phenix Cheese Corporation, maker of Philadelphia Brand cream cheese (introduced in the USA in 1880), was acquired. (Did Kraft buy Phenix Cheese from Mead Johnson? See link, 1920-1929.)
  • 1927-1929: Acquisitions: AE Wright (1927); Southern Dairies (1928); Henard Mayonnaise Company (1928); International Wood Products (1929); DJ Easton (1929); Gelfand Manufacturing (1929). Other un-named acquisitions were 10 Cheese Dealers and 2 Mayonnaise companies.
  • 1926: Vegemite, an interest in the yeast spread company was acquired. Vegemite was introduced in Australia by Fred Walker & Company of Melbourne in 1923.
  • 1924: Kraft Cheese Company: JL Kraft Bros & Company changed its name, with its shares being traded on the Chicago Stock Exchange.ref
  • 1916: Process Cheese: the relatively short shelf life of cheese made shipping to distant locations problematical. JL Kraft created and patented a new method for producing cheese that would solve the dilemma. Process cheese was created by heating cheddar to 175° and whisking continuously.[36]
  • 1914: Thirty-one varieties of cheeses were being sold around the USA.ref,ref,ref
  • 1909: JL Kraft Bros & Company was incorporated, with all four of James Lewis Kraft’s brothers involved in the business.
  • 1903: James Lewis Kraft began a business purchasing cheese wholesale and re-selling it door-to-door from the back of a wagon in Chicago, Illinois.
Sources: Our Corporate Timelines. Mondelez International. Accessed Dec.22.2018.

General Foods Corporation

General Foods was an American manufacturer of packaged grocery and meat products. The company's roots go back to 1895, when its predecessor, the Postum Cereal Company Ltd, was founded.

The company was acquired by tobacco giant Philip Morris Companies Inc in 1985, and combined with Kraft Inc to form Kraft General Foods,

ToDo: link, link, link, link, link, Oscar Mayer meats, Budget Gourmet frozen dinners, Crystal Light powdered beverage mixes, Shake 'n Bake flavored coatings, etc.

  • 1993: #Nabisco's cereal brands were sold to #Kraft General Foods Inc.
  • Mar.1989: #Kraft General Foods Inc: Philip Morris Companies combined #Kraft Inc and General Foods Corporation.
  • 1987: Kenco Coffee Company, founded in the UK in 1922, was acquired.ref The fledging firm established a popular coffee shop in London's Sloane Square, serving Kenco coffee.
  • 1987: Charles Freihofer Baking Company of New York was acquired.
  • 1985: Philip Morris Companies Inc acquired General Foods.
  • 1984:
    Joint Ventures were established in the People's Republic of China to produce Tang powdered beverage and Maxwell House coffee.
  • 1982:
    Entenmann's, a baked goods manufacturer, was bought from pharmaceutical company Pfizer Inc § Warner-Lambert.ref
  • 1981: #Oscar Meyer & Company was acquired.
  • 1979: Hag AG of Germany was acquired. Hag AG was founded in 1906 by Dr Ludwig Roselius, creator of Kaffee Hag, the world's first decaffeinated coffee.
  • 1973:
    Ajinomoto General Foods: a joint venture with Ajinomoto Company was entered into in Japan.
  • 1971: Gevalia Coffee was acquired via the purchase of Victor Theodore Engwall of Gavle, Sweden's largest coffee company. Gevalia was founded in 1853, when shipping merchant Victor Theodore Engwall of Gavle of Sweden developed a blend of superior coffee which met his personal penchant for rich flavor, full body and hearty aroma.
  • 1970:
    Dong Suh Foods: General Foods formed a joint venture with the Korean company.
  • 1970: W Atlee Burpee garden products was acquired.
  • 1964: Maxim, the USA's first freeze-dried coffee, was launched by General Foods.
  • 1957: Tang breakfast beverage crystals were launched in the USA.
  • 1954:
    General Foods set up business in West Germany to sell its products, with the first being instant coffee.
  • 1953: Kool-Aid, a powdered soft drink mix, was acquired through the purchase of the Perkins Products Company.
  • 1947: Alfred Bird and Sons Ltd, maker of Bird’s Custard Powder, established in 1837 in England, was acquired to increase General Foods' product lines in the UK.
  • 1947: Maxwell House coffee was launched in the UK.
  • 1943: Gaines dog food was acquired.
  • 1932: Sanka coffee was acquired.
  • Mar.1930:
    Frosted Foods Corporation Inc began offering "frosted food" in retail stores around Springfield, Massachusetts to test consumer acceptance of quick-frozen foods.ref
  • 1929/1930: General Foods Corporation: the Postum Company purchased Goldman Sachs' interest in the General Seafood Corporation, and adopted the name General Foods Corporation.ref
Postum Company
  • Jun.1929: General Seafood Corporation, formed by Clarence Birdseye to promote his new process of commercially viable quick-freezing, together with all patents and assets, was acquired by the Postum Company (51%) and with Goldman-Sachs Trading Corporation.ref
  • 1928: Maxwell House Coffee was acquired. The coffee blend was developed in 1892 by Joel Cheek for the Maxwell House Hotel in Nashville, Tennessee.
  • 1927: Log Cabin Syrup was acquired.
  • 1927: Baker's Chocolate was acquired. The chocolate blend was developed in 1780 by Dr. James Baker and John Hannon, who had opened America's first chocolate mill in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1765.
  • 1925-1929: Acquisitions: Igleheart Brothers (Swans Down flour); Minute Tapioca Company (1926); Franklin Baker (coconut); La France Company (bluing); and Calumet (baking powder) (1928); and Certo (pectin).
  • 1925: Jell-O Company, introduced in 1897, was acquired.
  • ?date?: Postum Company: Post Cereals changed its name.
  • 1904: Elijah's Manna Cereal was launched. Renamed "Post Toasties" in 1908.ref
  • 1897: Grape-Nuts, the first cereal, was introduced.
  • 1895: Postum Cereal Company Ltd was founded by CW Post in Battle Creek, Michigan. Post invested $78 in his initial equipment and supplies, and set up manufacturing in a barn. The first product was Postum, a "cereal beverage" alternative to coffee made from wheat and molasses.
Sources: link
Oscar Meyer & Company
Oscar Mayer is an American meat and cold cut production company based in Chicago, Illinois, owned by American food company Kraft Heinz. It is known for its hot dogs, bologna, bacon, ham, and Lunchables products. logo, History, Website
  • 1981: #General Foods Corporation acquired Oscar Meyer.
  • 1972: Prima Meat Packers: an interest in the Tokyo, Japan based company was acquired in order to introduce Oscar Mayer products in Japan and other parts of the Far East.
  • 1971: Listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • 1970: Claussen pickles was acquired. Claussen pickles: link, link, Claussen picklesWikipedia-W.svg
  • 1920-1980: Oscar Mayer remained an independent company owned primarily by descendants of the Mayer brothers.
  • 1919: Mayer purchased a small farmers’ co-op meat packing plant in Madison, Wisconsin.
  • 1904: Oscar Mayer began branding its meats to capitalize on their popularity, beginning an industry-wide trend.
  • 1883: German immigrant Oscar F Mayer and his brother Gottfried leased the Kolling Meat Market, a failing business in Chicago. The Mayer brothers sold bratwurst, liverwurst, and weißwurst in the predominantly German neighborhoods.ref,ref,ref
Post Foods LLC

cereals, logo

  • Aug.2008: Post Foods LLC: Kraft sold its Post Cereals business to Ralcorp Holdings Inc, after pressure from investors.ref,ref,ref
  • 1993: the cold cereal business, mainly Shredded Wheat and Shreddies cereals, was sold to #Kraft General Foods Inc.ref
  •  ??.1992: Stella D'Oro Company, marketer of bread sticks and baked specialty treats, was acquired.
  •  ??.1992: Plush Pippin Corporation, a Kent, Washington-based manufacturer of premium frozen pies, was acquired.
  •  ??.1991: Mr Phipps pretzel chips was named "New Product of the Year" by Food & Beverage Marketing magazine. Other new products included Fat-Free Mister Salty pretzels, Gummi Savers candy, LifeSavers Holes candy, Made 'Em Myself cookie kits, and Zings cracker chips. The LifeSavers brand was the USA's best-selling line of hard-roll candy.
Tobacco and Food businesses
  • Food:
    • Dec.2000: Philip Morris Companies Inc, owner of Kraft Foods Inc, acquired Nabisco Holdings Corporation, thereby adding a plethora of snacks to Kraft's portolio, and enabling it to retain its position as 2nd-largest food company in the world.ref After the sale, RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc acquired Nabisco Group Holdings Corporation, holdco of 80.6% of Nabisco Holdings Corporation, whose sole asset post-sale was ~$11.8bn in yummy cash from the deal.ref,ref
    • Jun.1999: Nabisco Group Holdings Corporation: the remaining food businesses were separated out, and RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation was renamed.
    • 1997: RJR sold Egg Beaters egg substitutes, Parkay margarine (1937), Touch of Butter, Chiffon, Fleischmann's, Move Over Butter and Blue Bonnet tablespreads to ConAgra; and its College Inn broth business and Venezuelan Del Monte operations to Del Monte Foods.
  • Tobacco:
  • Jun.2015: Lorillard Inc was acquired by Reynolds American Inc. The transaction included the divestiture of certain RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company and Lorillard Tobacco Company brands and assets - Winston, Salem, KOOL, Maverick and blue Cigs - to ITG Brands, a subsidiary of Imperial Tobacco Group plc.
    • Jul.2004: Reynolds American Inc: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc completed the merger of RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company and Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company, following approval by RJR shareholders, USA and European regulatory authorities. RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc was renamed, and began trading on the New York Stock Exchange.
    • Oct.2003: Reynolds American Inc: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc (58%) and British American Tobacco plc (42%) agreed to combine the assets and operations of their respective USA businesses (RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company and Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, 2nd- and 3rd-largest USA tobacco companies) to form a new publicly traded holding company. logo, History, [Website]
    • Jun.1999: Sale of domestic operations: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc/RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, the domestic tobacco subsidiary, was spun-off to shareholders in a stock distribution.ref,ref RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc: RJR Nabisco Inc was renamed, becoming an independent, publicly traded company, with RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company as its wholly-owned subsidiary.[ref, p.9]
    • May.1999: Sale of international operations: Japan Tobacco Inc purchased RJ Reynolds International, RJR Nabisco's international tobacco operations, forming Japan Tobacco International SA.ref, logo The sale included the international rights to the Camel, Winston and Salem cigarette brands.ref Website, History
Sources: link, link, Oct.2000, RJ Reynolds Tobacco, "A Look into our Past"

RJR Nabisco Inc
Nabisco, abbreviated from National Biscuit Company), is an American manufacturer of cookies and snacks headquartered in East Hanover, New Jersey. Products include Chips Ahoy!, Belvita, Oreo cookies, Ritz Crackers, Teddy Grahams, Triscuit crackers, Fig Newtons, and Wheat Thins for the USA, UK, Mexico, Bolivia, Venezuela, as well as other parts of South America.

The company's distinctive emblem is an oval topped by a cross with two bars. Adolphus Green found the symbol in a catalog of medieval Italian printers' marks, where it was said to represent the triumph of good over evil.

ToDo: link

  • Jan.1995: IPO of 19.5% of Nabisco stock.
  • Oct.1995: #Kraft General Foods Inc's North American margarine and table spreads business were acquired, which included the Parkay, Touch of Butter and Chiffon brands.ref (Kraft Foods = unit of the Philip Morris Companies)
  • Sept.1995: Ortega Mexican foods business was sold to Nestle USA Inc. The operations became part of the culinary division of Nestle Food Company, one of Nestle USA's 4 operating companies.ref,ref
  • 1994: Breakfast Cereal business: the USA and Canadian ready-to-eat cereals, including Shreddies and the Shredded Wheat franchise, was sold to Kraft General Foods Inc,ref and the international licenses to General Mills / Nabisco's entire cold cereal line, including Shredded Wheat, was sold to #Post along with trademark rights. The cereals business later on became a part of the Cereal Partners Worldwide joint venture with Nestle.ref
  • 1994: Knox Gelatin: the American rights were acquired from Unilever#TJ Lipton (who had bought the company in 1972), to add to its Royal Desserts Line.ref

Kohlberg, Kravis, Roberts & Company

  • Mar.1991: RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation became a publicly traded stock again,ref although KKR hung onto a stake until 1995.
  • Nov.1990: Hearst Corporation acquired RJR Nabisco's 20% stake of ESPN Inc, the nation's largest sports cable network.ref
  •  ??.1990: The Curtiss Candy division was sold to, link, link, link, link
  • Sept.1989: Del Monte processed foods business was sold to an investor group comprising Merrill Lynch & Company, venture capital firm Citicorp Capital Investors Ltd, Japan's Kikkoman Corporation, and members of senior management. The sale included Del Monte Foods USA; Del Monte Foods Europe, the company’s processed foods businesses in Mexico, the Caribbean and the Far East; and Del Monte’s pineapple operations in the Philippines and Kenya.ref The Del Monte/Aylmer Canada, Del Monte’s processed foods business in Venezuela and Nabisco food businesses in Latin America, which were managed by Del Monte, were not sold.ref See main article Del Monte Foods Inc.
  • Sept.1989: Del Monte Tropical Fruit Co, the fresh fruit division, was sold to Polly Peck International plc,ref who formed Fresh Del Monte Produce Inc to hold the assets.ref
  • Jul.1989: Associated Biscuits International Holdings Ltd (consisting of 38% of India's Britannia Industries Ltd and 40% of Pakistan's English Biscuit Manufacturers) was sold to India's Wadia Group#Britannia Industries Ltd.ref
  •  ??.1988: Chun King was sold to a syndicate led by Yeo Hiap Seng of Singapore.ref
  • Jun.1989: Nabisco's European cookie and cracker business (including Smith's and Walkers), Belin of France, and Saiwa of Italy, were sold to BSN SA, France's largest packaged-food group (later known as Groupe Danone).ref Smith's and Walkers were swiftly resold to PepsiCo.ref
  • Apr.1989:
    Kohlberg Kravis Roberts acquired RJR Nabisco Inc in a highly leveraged buyout.ref KKR cut jobs and divisions, shuffled operations and businesses,ref and flogged off bits to the highest bidders.
  • Mar.1987: Heublein Inc, a wines and spirits business, was sold to International Distillers & Vintners. The deal included the European and Commonwealth rights to Smirnoff vodka.[37][38]
  • Apr.1986: RJR Nabisco Inc: RJ Reynolds Industries Inc renamed itself.ref
Nabisco Brands Inc
ToDo: link, link
  • Sept.1985:
    RJ Reynolds Industries Inc, a worldwide manufacturer and distributor of tobacco, food, and beverage products, acquired Nabisco Brands Inc in a friendly takeover.ref Nabisco had sought the merger partly to avoid hostile takeover attempts, whilst Reynolds was interested in diversification, because tobacco litigation was proving expensive.ref Brands added to Nabisco's food portfolio were Del Monte canned products, A1 steak sauce (developed in the 1820s) and Grey Poupon mustard (introduced in 1877).
  • 1986: Fleischmann's Yeast, RJR Nabisco's Northern American yeast business, was sold to Australian company Burns, Philp & Company Ltd,ref,ref who sold its yeast business to Associated British Foods plc in 2004.
  • 1985: Yili Food Company: a partnership was formed with the Chinese firm to produce Ritz Crackers and Premium Saltines for the Chinese market.
  • 198?: Wheatsworth Crackers, made with whole wheat flour and containing no artificial flavors or colors, was launched.
  • 1982: Huntley and Palmer Foods, the English biscuit company, was acquired from ??.
  • 1981: Life Savers, an American brand of ring-shaped hard and soft candy launched in 1929, was acquired from the ER Squibb Corporation.
  • 1981: Gamesa S de RL de CV, a Mexican cookie firm: bought a controlling interest.
  • 1981/(?1979?): Nabisco Brands Inc: Nabisco merged with #Standard Brands, maker of products such as Fleischmann yeast, Del Monte canned goods, and Royal baking powder.
Nabisco Inc
  • 1971: JB Williams Company, manufacturer of Geritol, Sominex, Aqua Velva, etc., was acquired from ??. The JB Williams unit was frequently at odds with the Federal Trade CommissionWikipedia-W.svg and, in Oct.1982, Nabisco sold it to the Beecham Group plc.
  • 1971: Aurora Products, a toy maker, was acquired. However, Aurora proved largely unprofitable and was sold in 1977.
  • 1971:
    Nabisco Inc became the company's official corporate name.
National Biscuit Company
  • 1970: made its first Asian investment by establishing a joint venture with the Yamazaki Baking Company of Japan.
  • 1965: Galletas, a Spanish bakery, was acquired.
  • 1965: Saiwa, an Italian biscuit company, was acquired.
  • 1964: Harry Trueller, one of West Germany's largest confectioneries, was acquired.
  • 1963: acquired Biscuits Belin of France, the Danish baking concern Oxford Biscuit Fabrik, and the James O. Welch Company, makers of Junior Mints and Sugar Babies.
  • 1962: Frears, an English bakery, was acquired.
  • 1962: Griffin and Sons, New Zealand's largest biscuit firm, was acquired.
  • 1961: Cream of Wheat Company was acquired.1924 pic-link,pic-link
  • 1953: established a partnership with the Famosa Bakery in Mexico.
  • 1950: formed a manufacturing partnership with La Favorita Bakery in Venezuela.
  • 1950s: marked the beginning of overseas expansion.
  • 1941:
    Nabisco: the letters "N.B.C." in the official trademark were exchanged for the word "Nabisco," a popular nickname which had first appeared as a possible name for Uneeda Biscuits.
  • 1934: Ritz Crackers were launched as a new prestige item. pic-link
  • 1931: FH Bennett Company/Bennett Biscuit Company, maker of Milk-Bone Pet Products, was taken over. NBC concentrated on the most popular product line, Milk-Bone Dog Biscuits, originally marketed as "a dog's dessert." (pic-saved)
  • Dec.1928: The Shredded Wheat Company, maker of Triscuit wafers and Shredded Wheat cereal, was acquired.ref Background: in 1890, the Cereal Machine Company was established by Henry D Perky, who invented shredded wheat cereal in Denver, Colorado, initially intending to lease the cereal-manufacturing machines to bakers.ref,ref The biscuits proved more popular than the machines, so Perky moved East and opened his first bakery in Boston, Massachusetts in 1895. In 1901, Perky commenced manufacturing shredded wheat cereal in Niagara Falls, New York as The Natural Food Company. In 1904, the Natural Food Company changed its name to the Shredded Wheat Company. Triscuit biscuits were named thusly because they were created by a company in Niagara Falls, where a hydroelectric plant was built in 1893. “Triscuit is baked by electricity, the only food on the market prepared by this process,” the advert declared. The ‘Tri’ was short for electric.ref
  • 1928: Christie, Brown & Company of Toronto, Canada (established in 1853), was acquired.
  • 1922: Société Anonyme Biscuits Gondolo: a controlling interest was acquired in one of France's leading biscuit companies (founded in 1843). The remaining shareholding was purchased in 1961.ref
  • 1928: McLaren Consolidated Cone Corporation, the world's largest manufacturer of ice cream cones, was acquired.
  • 1920s:
    N.B.C., as the company was frequently known, expanded its product line to include pretzels, breakfast cereal, and ice cream cones. The first foreign subsidiary was established in Canada in 1925.
  • 1914:
  • Mar.1912: Oreos were launched, eventually becoming the world's best-selling cookie. Logos
  • Mar.1912: Lorna Doone shortbread bookies were introduced. John and Emily Malloy, originally from County Cork, Ireland, started a bakery in a subway in Chicago, creating the Lorna Doone. When the bakery closed, the recipe was sold to FA Kennedy Steam Bakery.
  • 1902: Barnum's Animal Crackers in the famous decorative box resembling a circus cage filled with animals was launched. pic-link, pic-link, pic-link, pic-link, pic-link, pic-link
  •  ??.1898: FA Kennedy Steam Bakery, inventors of Fig Newtons, joined the company.ref
  • Feb.1898:
    The National Biscuit Company was formed in Chicago from the merger of the eastern New York Biscuit Company, with its rival the midwestern American Biscuit & Manufacturing Company. With 114 bakeries, the company held a virtual monopoly on cookie and cracker manufacturing in the USA. Adolphus Green took crackers out of their large crates and put them into small, waxed-paper lined, cardboard boxes, branded "Uneeda", depicting a rosy-cheeked boy clutching a box of biscuits.
  • 1890: American Biscuit & Manufacturing Company was formed through the merger of 40 midwestern bakeries. Adolphus Green, a Chicago lawyer, orchestrated the merger. pic-link
  • 1889: New York Biscuit Company: William Moore acquired Pearson & Sons Bakery, Josiah Bent Bakery, the United States Baking Company, and 6 other bakeries to form the New York Biscuit Company.
  • 1792: Pearson & Sons Bakery: John Pearson opened a shop in Newburyport, Massachusetts, making hard tack biscuits (aka "pilot bread") for consumption on long sea voyages.
Additional Sources: The Evolution of Nabisco Brands

Standard Brands

Fleischmann's Company was the foundation stone of giant conglomerate Standard Brands. Fleischmann's huge distilleries kept America jolly from 1870 to Prohibition and afterwards.

Standard Brands products included Tender Leaf tea, Moosehead beer, Fleischmann's Egg Beaters, Blue Bonnet margarine, Dry Sack sherry and Pernod liqueur. Standard Brands' other major line of business was selling food ingredients, including corn-based products, vinegar and baking ingredients, to industrial customers.

  • 1981: Nabisco Brands Inc: Standard Brands was merged with Nabisco.
  • Aug.1979: Inver House scotch was acquired from Publicker Industries Inc.
  • 1978: Reggie! candy bar, named after New York Yankees baseball star Reggie Jackson, was launched. Despite several promotions, the Reggie! bar sold sluggishly, and was dropped in 1980.
  • 1972: Julius Wile Sons & Company, marketer of imported liqueurs, wines and specialties, was acquired.
  • 1964: Curtiss Candy Company, makers of the Baby Ruth candy bar, was acquired.
  • 1960: Planters Nut & Chocolate Company was acquired. Planters was formed in 1906 after Amedeo Obici and Mario Peruzzi revolutionized a system for blanching and roasting peanuts.
  • 1940s: Active dry yeast was invented by Fleischmann's.
  • Jun.1929: Standard Brands Inc was formed by JP MorganWikipedia-W.svg with the merger of three companies, with two more being added in later in the year:ref
    • Fleischmann Company, maker of products as diverse as yeast and gin;
    • Royal Baking Powder Company (which already owned 66% of the capital stock of EW Gillett Ltd, the largest Canadian baking-powder maker);
    • EW Gillett Company of Canada, a Toronto-based baking goods company and maker of Magic Baking Powder (founded by PW Gillett in 1852);
    • Aug.1929: Chase & Sanborn Coffee Company, a coffee roaster;
    • Dec.1929: Widlar Food Products Company;
  • 1895: Fleischmann Company: the company was renamed, and incorporated in Ohio.
  • 1868: Gaff, Fleischmann & Company was founded in Riverside, Ohio, by brothers Charles and Maximilian Fleischmann, immigrants from Austria-Hungary, and James Gaff of Cincinnati. Together, they developed he first compressed yeast sold in North America.
Sources: Time Magazine, 1929, link


  • Apr.2008: Mars Inc announced that it would acquire the Wrigley Company.ref Financing was provided by private equity firms Berkshire Hathaway, Goldman Sachs and JP Morgan; Berkshire Hathaway held a minority equity investment in Wrigley until Oct.2016.11,12
  • Jan.2007: Wrigley agreed to acquire an 80% initial interest in A Korkunov, with the remaining 20% to be acquired over time.
  • Jan.2007: Cream of Wheat was sold to B&G Foods Inc.ref
  • 2007: Kraft Foods was spun off from Altria, taking its Nabisco subsidiary with it.ref
  • 2005: Wrigley purchased Life Savers and Altoids from Kraft Foods for US$1.5 billion.ref
  • Oct.2003: Reynolds American Inc: RJR and British American Tobacco plc announced that they had entered into a definitive agreement to combine the assets and operations of their respective US businesses to form a new publicly traded holding company. The new company began trading on the New York Stock Exchange in Aug.2004.
  • Dec.2000: Philip Morris Companies Inc bought Nabisco Holdings Corporation, and merged it with Kraft General Foods Inc.
  • Nov.2000: Hershey Food Corporation bought Nabisco Inc's line of gums and mints: Carefree, Stickfree, Bubble Yum, Fruit Stripe gum, as well as its line of Ice Breakers and Breath Savers.ref
  • Jun.2000: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc announced it would acquire, through merger, Nabisco Group Holdings Inc, following the completion of Philip Morris Companies Inc's acquisition of Nabisco Holdings Corporation. The merger was completed in Dec.2000.ref
  • Jun.2000: Philip Morris Companies Inc acquired Nabisco Holdings Corporation.ref Kraft Foods, at the time also a Philip Morris Companies Inc subsidiary, was merged with Nabisco.ref
  • Jun.1999: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Holdings Inc: due to concerns about tobacco lawsuit liabilities, the domestic tobacco business, RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, was spun-off to shareholders from RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation. On completion of the spin-off, RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation was renamed Nabisco Group Holdings.
  • Mar.1999: RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation announced the sale of its international tobacco business to Japan Tobacco Inc. The sale completed in May.1999.ref
  • Nov.1999: Nabisco acquired Favorite Brands International, after it went into financial decline due to bad management decisions.ref
  • 1998: RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation was the parent company of RJR Nabisco Inc. RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation held an 80.7% interest in Nabisco Holdings Corporation.
  • 1998 Nabisco Holdings announced its sale of its margarine and egg substitute business to Conagra Brands Inc of Omaha. It also sold its College Inn broth brand to HJ Heinz Company,ref and its Venezuelan Del Monte operations to Del Monte Foods Inc.ref
  • 1995: RJR-Nabisco acquired the North American margarine and table spreads business of Kraft foods, which included Parkay, Touch of Butter and Chiffon.ref
  • 1995 Ortega Mexican foods business was sold to Nestle.ref
  • 1994: RJR acquired Knox Gelatin and integrated the Shredded Wheat franchise into the #Post Foods portfolio.ref
  • 1994: RJR sold its breakfast cereal business (primarily the Shredded Wheat franchise) to Kraft Foods, and the international licenses to General Mills (which later became part of the Cereal Partners Worldwide SA joint venture with Nestle).ref
  • 1993: Kraft General Foods acquired Nabisco ready-to-eat cold cereals from RJR Nabisco.
  • 1992:
    SnackWell's was launched as a brand in the low-fat cookies and crackers categories.
  • Mar.1991: RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation began trading on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • Apr.1989: RJR Nabisco Inc was bought by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Company in a leveraged buyout for $25bn.ref The purchase meant jobs- and cost-cutting to the bone, to repay the massive borrowings. After the dust had settled and the loan partly repaid, the company was renamed as "RJR Nabisco Holdings Corporation".

  • Jan.1988: Inver House Distillers was sold to management. The firm is now owned by Thai Beverage plc.ref,ref
  • 1986: Kentucky Fried Chicken fastfood business was sold to PepsiCo. KFC's investor group owners has sold it to spirits distributor Heublein Inc in the early 1970s; Heublein was taken over by RJ Reynolds in 1982.
  • Apr.1986: RJR Nabisco Inc: RJ Reynolds changed the company's name to reflect the acquisition.
  • Sept.1985: Nabisco Brands Inc was acquired by RJ Reynolds Industries Inc.ref Nabisco became the food division, acquiring the Del Monte Corporation arm of RJ Reynolds.
  • 1982: Chase & Sanborn Coffee Company† was sold to Kraft-General Foods.ref
  • 1982: Associated Biscuits Ltd (formerly Associated Biscuits Manufacturers Ltd), was bought by Nabisco, who thereby acquired Peek Freans, Huntley & Palmers Ltd and W&R Jacob & Company.ref
  • 1981: Life Savers was acquired from the ER Squibb Corporation, which included the popular Bubble Yum bubble gum and the Beech-Nut candy line.
  • 1981: Nabisco Brands Inc: Nabisco Inc merged with Standard Brands Inc. Brands acquired: Planters Nuts, Royal gelatin, Fleischmann's Yeast, Blue Bonnet margarines, Curtiss Candy Company (Baby Ruth and Butterfinger candy bars), Chase & Sanborn Coffee Company, Inver House Distillers.
  • 1979: Del Monte Corporation, now known as Del Monte Foods Inc, was acquired by RJ Reynolds Industries Inc.
  • 1971: Nabisco Inc: the National Biscuit Company changed its name.
  • 1952: The red Nabisco triangle first appeared on the upper left corner of National Biscuit Company products.
  • 1928: Christie, Brown & Company, Canada's major baked goods maker, was acquired.
  • 1931: FH Bennett Company, maker of Milk-Bone dog biscuits, was acquired.
  • 1898: FA Kennedy Steam Bakery was acquired.
  • 1898: National Biscuit Company: the New York Biscuit Company merged with the American Biscuit & Manufacturing Company and the United States Baking Company.
  • 1890: American Biscuit & Manufacturing Company was formed by Adolphus W. GreenWikipedia-W.svg, who had acquired 40 different bakeries.
  • 1889: New York Biscuit Company: William Henry MooreWikipedia-W.svg acquired the Pearson & Sons Bakery, Josiah Bent Bakery, and 6 other bakeries, to form the New York Biscuit Company.
  • 1792: Pearson & Sons Bakery opened in Massachusetts, making "pilot bread", a biscuit consumed on long sea voyages.
Sources: link, Nabisco: Our Corporate Timelines

† Hills Bros. bought Chase & Sanborn Coffee Company in 1984; Nestle became the new parent in 1985;ref Nestle sold its USA coffee business to Sara Lee Corporation in 1999; and the Chase & Sanborn, Hills Bros., MJB, and Chock Full O' Nuts brands were sold to Massimo Zanetti Beverage Group in 2006.ref

  • ?date?: Coca-Cola Schweppes was a joint venture between Schweppes (51%) and Coca-Cola (49%). Previously, Schweppes was involved with Pepsi.
  • Jul.2018: Keurig Dr Pepper: Keurig acquired the Dr Pepper Snapple Group. The combined company was renamed, and listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • 2018: DPS merged with Keurig Green Mountain to form Keurig Dr Pepper.
  • 2017: DPS completed the acquisition of Bai Brands LLC, adding its lineup of better-for-you, antioxidant-infused enhanced waters, carbonated flavored waters, coconut water and premium teas to the portfolio.
  • Nov.2016: Fairtrade & Organic: Kraft announced that Cadbury's was dropping its Fairtrade commitment, another broken promise to the Cadbury brand. Nevertheless, it kept the Fairtrade logo on the packaging.ref,ref Green & Black's chocolate also dropped its Fairtrade and organic labelling.ref
  • 2015-??: Jobs: Mondelez closed Cadbury factories in several developed countries, and shifted production to locations like China, India, Brazil, and Eastern Europe. Citizens were furious; shareholders loved it.ref,ref
  • 2015: Kraft Heinz Company: Kraft Foods Group Inc merged with the HJ Heinz Company to form the world’s 5th-largest food and beverage company.ref
  • Mar.2013: Plastic Recycling / Bottle Deposit: Schweppes, Coca-Cola Company and Lion (owned by Japan's Kirin Holdings Company Ltd) won a court battle to defeat a 10-cent bottle refund program run by an Australian state govt.ref
  • Oct.2012: Mondelez International and Kraft Foods Group Inc: Kraft Foods split into two companies; the snack foods and confectionery business became Mondelez International, of which Cadbury is a subsidiary.refref The North American grocery business became a new company called Kraft Foods Group Inc, which was a tax-free spin-off for Kraft Foods shareholders.ref
  • Sept.2011: Kraft's takeover of Cadbury led to a review of the laws by the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers. Changes were made to the Takeover Code, which strengthened the hand of target companies, and demanded more information from bidders about their intentions after the purchase, particularly on areas like job cuts. Changes also gave greater prominence to the views of employees. ref
  • Jun.2010: Cadbury-Wedel, the Polish division, was sold to Korea's Lotte CorporationWikipedia-W.svg, although Kraft kept some of the bigger brands. The European Commission had made the sale a condition of the takeover.
  • Feb.2010: Jobs: Cadbury's Somerdale factory was closed after Cadbury's takeover by Kraft Foods, with the loss of ~500 jobs, and the transfer of production to Poland. Kraft had specifically agreed during the takeover battle to keep the site open; the closure announcement was made 6 days later. Kraft refused to explain its lies.ref,ref

Cadbury Schweppes

1969 — 2008
  • ToDo: info, link
  • Feb.2010: #Kraft Foods Inc acquired a 75% stake in Cadbury plc. In March, Cadbury was de-listed and fully integrated into Kraft.ref Kraft took on enormous debt to fund the takeover, as well as selling its frozen Pizza production line to raise funds; it was therefore looking to reduce costs drastically. No formal assurance was given on the 6,400 UK jobs.ref
  • Jan.2010: Kraft Foods Inc, pushed by Warren BuffetWikipedia-W.svg who had a 9.4% stake,ref finally managed to complete the hostile takeover of Cadbury plc. Kraft management assured Cadbury that they had a "great respect" for Cadbury’s brands, employees and reputable history, and that Cadbury's employees' contractual rights would remain the same. Kraft refused to visit Parliament: "it was not the best use of personal time". Gordon Brown was completely against the takeover, but greedy shareholders pushed it through, because #profit$.ref,ref,[1] The govt-owned (84%) Royal Bank of Scotland funded the takeover.ref,ref
  • Apr.2009: Schweppes Australia Pty Ltd was sold to Asahi Breweries.ref,ref In 2011 Asahi bought P&N Beverages' juice and water business, and added those brands to the Schweppes Australia portfolio.ref,ref
  • Mar.2009: Fairtrade: Cadbury Dairy Milk was the first major chocolate brand to become Fairtrade certified.ref,ref
  • Feb.2009: Schweppes Australia Pty Ltd: the confectionery and beverages businesses of Cadbury Schweppes Pty Ltd in were formally separated, and the beverages business began operations as Schweppes Australia Pty Ltd. The decision to split the Australian businesses was Cadbury's final divestment in a worldwide shift.
  • Jun.2008: Intergum, a Turkey-based manufacturer of chewing-gum, was acquired.ref
  • May.2008: Split:
    Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc: Cadbury Schweppes plc spun off the USA drinks business "Cadbury Schweppes Americas Beverages" into a stand-alone, publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange.
    Cadbury plc: the chocolate and confectionary business was renamed as "Cadbury plc". Shareholders were delighted with the payout; citizens less so, due to the closure of 11 factories plus 7,800 job cuts.ref, ref,ref
  • Feb.2008: Monkhill Confectionery, the "own label" trading division of Cadbury Trebor Bassett, was sold to Tangerine Confectionery Ltd.AR-Dec.2008 The sale included 3 factories and a distribution centre. Brands sold: Barratt's (sherbert fountains), Mojo, Taverners, Anthon Berg, Sharps of York (toffees), Jameson's, Trebor Basset (mints), Butterkist popcorn,ref, Lion (wine gums), Jameson's Ruffle bar,ref and Pascall lines.ref,ref
  • Jul.2007: Jobs: Cadbury Schweppes announced that it would be outsourcing its transactional accounting and order capture functions to India, China, and Romania. The move led to job losses in developed countries, and job creation at low salaries in developing ones.ref
  • Mar.2007: Demerger: As a result of intense shareholder pressure, Cadbury's agreed to separate the USA beverage business (Americas Beverages) from the confectionery business.ref
  • May.2006: Slush Puppie Corporation was sold to J&J Snack Foods CorporationWikipedia-W.svg.ref.
  • Apr.2006: Cadbury Schweppes plc purchased the remainder of Dr Pepper/Seven-Up Inc and Dr Pepper/Seven Up Bottling Group from the Carlyle Group. All of Dr Pepper/Seven Up Inc's assets were absorbed into "Cadbury Schweppes Americas Beverages". Dr Pepper/Seven Up Bottling Group was merged with other Cadbury-acquired bottlers and renamed "Cadbury Schweppes Bottling Group".ref
  • May.2005: Green & Black's was acquired by Cadbury Schweppes.ref Founder William Kendall bitterly regretted the sale later, referring to public companies short-termist obsession with their shareholders.ref
  • Oct.2003: Jobs: Cadbury Schweppes announced the laying off 5,500 workers and shutting a fifth of its factories as it looked for savings.ref
  • 2003: Cadbury Schweppes Americas Beverages: the 4 North American beverage companies – Dr Pepper/Seven Up Inc, Snapple Beverage Corp, Mott's, and Bebidas Mexico – were unified under a common business strategy and management structure.
  • Mar.2003: Adams confectionery business: Cadbury Schweppes bought Adams from Pfizer Inc, and became the world's largest confectionery company.ref,ref
  • Dec.2002: Cadbury Adams: Cadbury Schweppes acquired the Adams confectionery group from Pfizer, becoming joint market leader alongside Mars and Nestle.ref The deal completed in Mar.2003.ref Brands: Halls cough drops, Certs breath mints, Trident sugar-free gum, Dentyne and Dentyne Ice chewing gum, Chiclets, and the Bubbas bubblegum range.
  • 2002: Dandy AS, a Danish chewing gum manufacturer, sold their brands Dirol, Stimorol and V6 to Cadbury.ref
  • Oct.2001: Pernod sold its soft drinks business to Cadbury Schweppes. Brands: ??
  • Sept.2001: Orangina, Pampryl, Champomy, Yoo-Hoo and other soft drinks brands plus their associated businesses in Europe, North America and Australia were accquired from Pernod Ricard.ref,ref
  • Dec.2000: Slush Puppie Corporation, a frozen drinks company, was acquired from founder Will Radcliff.ref,ref The sale was completed in Mar.2001.ref
  • Sept.2000: Snapple Beverage Group was acquired by Cadbury Schweppes from Triarc Companies Inc. Brands: Diet Rite, the Mistic brand of tea and fruit drinks, Royal Crown (RC) Cola, Snapple, Stewart's root beer, among others.ref,ref See this FT article on Snapple Beverage Corporation.
  • Late-1990s: Sour Patch Kids were acquired by Cadbury-Adams.ref
  • Mar.1995: Dr Pepper/Seven Up Inc: Cadbury Schweppes plc (30%) and the Carlyle Group (70%) bought Dr Pepper/Seven Up Inc, after it became insolvent.ref The company was renamed "Dr Pepper/Cadbury of North America Inc", but renamed again in 1997 to "Dr Pepper/Seven Up Inc". Brands: Dr Pepper, 7 Up, IBC Root Beer, Welch's soft drink line.
  • Oct.1993: A&W Brands Inc was acquired by Cadbury Schweppes. Brands: A&W root beer, citrus-flavored Squirt; Vernors Ginger Ale; and Country Time lemonades. Cadbury already controlled the Schweppes, Crush, and Mott’s brands.
  • Nov.1989: Bassett Foods plc was acquired by Cadbury Schweppes plc; all trade and assets were hived up.AR-1989.
  • Sept.1989: Cadbury Schweppes bought the Trebor Confectionery Company.ref
  • Apr.1989: Premier Brands Ltd announced they had authorised their bank to auction the company off. The decision was justified on the grounds that Europe's barrier-free market by 1992 would mean a hostile takeover if Premier went public.ref The company was acquired by Premier Foods plc in 1990.ref
  • Aug.1988: Hershey Company purchased Cadbury-Schweppes's entire US chocolate business.refref
  • Jun.1986: Canada Dry and Sunkist were bought by Cadbury Schweppes from RJR Nabisco Inc (RJ Reynolds Industries Inc renamed itself in Apr.1986, after buying Nabisco Brands Inc in 1985,ref).ref
  • May.1986: Premier Brands Ltd: Cadbury Schweppes plc sold its Beverages and Foods division (in the UK, Ireland and France) to a management buyout.AR-1987 The buyers mortgaged their homes, with employees also buying a stake.ref Premier Brands took over brands such as Typhoo Tea, Kenco, Melroses, Glengettie, Ridgways, Smash and Chivers Hartley range of jams, marmalades and canned fruits, as well as the licence for production of Cadbury brand biscuits and drinking chocolate.ref
  • Mid-1980s: Cadbury Schweppes decided to focus on its confectionary and soft-drinks businesses and to sell off its grocery-products division and other interests.ref
  • 1982: Duffy-Mott Company, one of the largest apple juice processors in the world, was acquired. The business was later known as "Mott's".
  • 1978: Peter Paul Candy Manufacturing Compan, the 3rd-largest chocolate manufacturer in the USA, was acquired to become Cadbury Schweppes' USA arm.ref Peter Paul acquired a 10% stake in Cadbury's, exerting pressure on profits.ref

Cadbury Ltd

  • 1969: Cadbury Schweppes plc: Cadbury Group Ltd merged with Schweppes plc. This marked the ending of the Quaker ethos, and the introduction of a capitalist venture approach.ref Cadbury also merged with Schweppes Australia, forming Cadbury Schweppes Pty Ltd.
  • 1967: Cadbury-Fry and Pascall: MacRobertson Chocolates, an Australian confectioner founded in 1880, was acquired, enabling Cadbury to build a 60% market share in Australia.
  • 1967: JS Fry & Sons Ltd had faced declining business, and was taken over by Cadbury. The British Cocoa and Chocolate Company changed its name to Cadbury Group Ltd.ref
  • 1965: Barrow Stores, established in ~1824, was sold to Fitch Lovell Ltd.
  • 1964: James Pascall, a London-based maker of chocolate éclairs, and Murray, were acquired from Beecham Group Ltd.[39]
  • 1962: Cadbury Ltd: the business was reorganised, and floated on the Stock Exchange.

Cadbury Brothers Ltd

  • 1922: Cadbury-Fry and Pascall: Cadbury and Fry, joined by Pascall, created a new Australian company.
  • 1919: British Cocoa and Chocolate Company: Cadbury and JS Fry & Sons Ltd signed a partnership agreement, and create a new holding company to take over the assets of both businesses.
  • 1915: Cadbury's Milk tray was first produced.
  • 1911: The first Cadbury logo was commissioned: a stylised cocoa tree interwoven with the Cadbury name.ref The famous script logo was introduced in 1921.ref
  • Mar.1909: Slavery: Cadbury announced a boycott on slave-grown cocoa from São Tomé and Príncipe, and convinced other British and American chocolate companies to join him.ref
  • 1906: Bourneville Cocoa was launched, followed by Bourneville Chocolate in 1908.
  • 1905: Dairy Milk chocolate bar was introduced; by 1936, it had 60% of the UK milk chocolate market.
  • 1899: Cadbury Brothers Ltd: Cadbury became a private limited company.ref


  • 1866: Adulteration of Food Acts 1872 and 1875: the adulteration of food was of great concern at the time. A new type of cocoa press made it unnecessary to add flour or sago to drinking chocolate, and led to the passing of the two Acts. Cadbury's capitalised on the publicity, and clever marketing helped promote the company worldwide.
  • 1861: John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business, which by that point had become a chocolate company.ref
  • 1860: Food and Drugs Act 1860 was passed, partly in response to the discovery that some manufacturers were adding brick dust to chocolate powder.
  • 1850s: Prime Minister William Gladstone reduced taxes on imported cacao beans; previously prohibitively expensive chocolate products were now within the reach of the wider population.
  • ~1824: Barrow Stores was established by John Cadbury in Birmingham.
  • 1824: Cadbury was established by Quaker John Cadbury, in Birmingham, a former apprentice to a tea dealer.
Additional Sources: The Story of CadburyChocolate in historyBusiness History of Food, Cadbury: Our StoryMondelez: Our Corporate Timelines


  • 2016: Maynards Bassetts: Trebor ?? was joined with Bassett's, merging the existing Maynards and Bassett's brands,ref to try to build market share.ref
  • 1998: Cadbury (?) acquired Maynards.
  • 199?: Maynards, maker of wine gums, Sour Patch Kids, was acquired.
  •  ?? 1990: Maynards merged with Bassetts and Trebor.
  • Mar.1989: Bassett Foods plc, makers of Bassett's Liquorice Allsorts, Jelly Babies, Fruit Pastilles, Pontefract Cakes, amongst others, was acquired by #Cadbury Schweppes plc.AR-Mar-1989,ref Barratt's (Sherbert Dip Dab and Fountains), acquired by Bassett's in 1966, and Jamesons Chocolates (acquired in 1988), Wilkinson (acquired in 1961), came along too.ref Cadbury merged its own smaller sugar confectionery businesses of Pascall-Murray and Lion into the larger Bassett concern.ref
  • Feb.1989: Bassett Foods plc was acquired (by ?)
  • Jan.1988: Lion Confectionery Company Ltd was acquired.
  • 1969: Cadbury Schweppes plc/Ltd was formed by the merger of Cadbury and Schweppes. AR-Dec.1988

Nov.1989: Trebor Group Ltd Basset Foods plc Trebor Bassett Holdings Ltd Trebor Bassett Ltd Geo. Bassett & Company Ltd + Anglo Bellamy Wilkinson Ltd: 1989: UP = Bassett Foods plc; merged with the Wilkinson division of Geo Basset & Co Ltd; Jun.1986: acquired the Candy Box Company Ltd; ??: Beech-nut Sweets (England) Ltd. + Ernest Jackson & Company Ltd: Apr.1987: UP = Bassett Foods plc. The Lion Confectionery Company Ltd: Dec.1989: UP = Cadbury Schweppes plc CS Sugar Confectionery Ltd: Dec.1990: UP = Cadbury Schweppes plc.

  • Dec.1988 a/cs:
    • formed in 1969 via merger of Cadbury + Schweppes
    • Jan.1988: Dr Pepper + Seven Up merged = Dr Pepper/7-Up Companies Inc
    • sold the US confectionery business to Hershey Foods Corporation
    • Oct.1989: Coca-Cola & Schweppes Beverages Ltd acqd the Orange Crush Co Ltd / Crush International
    • ?date?: Cadbury Schweppes Australia acqd
  • Dec.1989:
    • 1986: acqd Canada Dry and rights to Sunkist
    • 1987: Coca-Cola & Schweppes Beverages Ltd set up, JV owned by Cadbury Schweppes (51%) and Coca-Cola Company (40%)
    • Early.1989: Bassett Foods acd. Brands = Bassett, Barratt, Wilkinson, Ernest Jackson.
    • Nov.1989: acqd Trebor Group Ltd.
    • Mar.1990: combined Trebor Bassett; formally est.
    • Major brands: Trebor, Bassett, Murrays, Pascall, Barratt, Jacksons, Wilkinsons, lion, de Faam, Frisia, Chapelat Humphries, Hueso, Crystal, Molly Bushell.
  • Dec.1990:
    • Apr.1990: combined all confectionery ops in the UK into Trebor Bassetts
  • Jan.1993: Trebor Bassett Ltd brands: Trebor, Bassett, Barratt, Maynard, Sharps, Pascall
    • Apr.1992: Hacks + Victory V brands of medication confectionery acqd
  • Dec.1996
    • Feb.1997: Coca-Cola & Schweppes Beverages Ltd: 51% interest sold to Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc.
    • May.1997: Craven Keiller (Butterkist) acqd. See ButterkistWikipedia-W.svg
    • 1986: Typhoo Tea, Kenco Coffee, Jeyes sold
    • 1986: Canada Dry + rights to Sunkist brand acqd
  • Jan.1999:
    • Dec.1998: agreed to sell beverage brands and concentrate plants + associated bottling assets + some minor brands o/s the US, France + South Africa to the Coca-Cola Company.[2]
    • Feb.1998: The American Bottling Company est. CS (39.3%). Carlyle Group (60%). Acqd bottling companies Beverage America + Select Beverages in May. Acqd the Cotton Club Bottling Company in Nov.
    • Jan.1999: Wedel, Poland's leading chocolate confectionery brand, acqd.
  • Jan.2000:
    • May.1999: Hawaiian Punch acqd.
    • Oct.1999: Dr Pepper Bottling Company of Texas acqd + merged with the American Bottling company to form the Dr Pepper/Seven Up Bottling Group Inc, (renamed to Cadbury Schweppes Bottling Group in 2006). Acqd brands: Deja Vlue water, Distrib right for Glaceau, Monster energy drink, Fiji Mineral Water.
    • Jan.2000: Cadbury Food Beijing, acqd the outstanidng 25% stake, now owns 100%
    • Jul.1999: Sold beverage brands, concentrate plants + associated bottling assets + some minor brands (in 160 markets) o/s the US, France + South Africa to the Coca-Cola Company. EU states except the UK, Ireland, Greece, Norway, Sweden were excluded.
    • Sept.1999: sold carbonated beverages brands in New Zealand, South Africa + "certain other markets" to the Coca-Cola Company.
    • 1996: Neilson Cadbury in Canada acqd.
    • 1995: Allan Candy Group, renamed Trebor Allan, Canadian mnf, acqd.
  • Dec.2000:
    • restructured into Europe Confectionery (Cadbury, Trebor, Bassett's, Fry's, Maynards, Sharps, Barratt, Butterkist), Europe Beverages, North America Beverages (Dr Pepper/Seven Up + Mott's + Snapple), Americas Confectionery, Asia Pacific and Africa, India and Middle East.
    • Integrated Cadbury Ltd and Trebor Bassett into Badbury Trebor Bassett.
    • Aug.2000: Hollywood chewing gum business in France acqd. Brands = Hollywood, Malabar, Tonigum gums; Krema, Kiss Cool, La Vosgienne candy.
    • Oct.1999: Snapple Beverage Group Inc acqd.
    • Jan.2001: Slush Puppie Corporation acqd.
    • Jan.2001: Mantecol (Argentica) acqd; Spring Valley + Wave flavour milk brands in Australia acqd.
    • Nov.2000: Wuxi Leaf Confectionery Co Ltd in China acqd.
    • Oct.2000: Snapple Beverage Group acqd from Triarc Companies Inc.
    • Oct.2000: Lion Nathan bottling ops in Australia acqd. Was a JV w/Pepsi.
    • Aug.2000: Dr Pepper/Seven Up Bottling Group Inc acqd Grant-Ludick Beverages Company.
  • Dec.2001:
    • Sept.2001: ReaLemon/ReaLime in the USA acqd by Mott's from Eagle Family Foods Group LLCWikipedia-W.svg.
    • Feb.2002: Squirt acquisition from Refremex AG agreed.
    • Oct.2001: Pernod Ricard's soft drinks brands and businesses in Europe, North America + Australia acqd. Brands: Orangina, Pampryl, Champomy, Yoo-Hoo.
    • Jul.2001: La Casera, a Spanish soft drinks mnf., acqd from ??
    • Jul.2001: Royal Crown (RC) Cola International non-US businesses (acqd in Oct.2000 via Snapple acquisition) sold to Cott Corporation.
    • Other acquisitions: Mother Earth, a New Zealand health food company; Carteret, a US beverage operation; Spring Vallye, an Australian juice brand; Mantecol, Argentinian confectionery brand.
    • 2000: Disposals: Amalgamated Beverage Industries to ??;
  • Dec.2002:
    • Nov.2002: Apollinaris & Schweppes, a JV in Germany, acqd Brau and Brunne's 72% interest.
    • Sept.2002: Dandy AS, a chewing gum business, acqd from the Bagger-Sorensen family in Denmark.
    • May.2002: Snapple Beverage Group acqd Nantucket Allserve Inc from Ocean Spray Cranberries Inc.
    • May.2002: acqd a majority interest in Kent, Turkey's leading confectionery mnf, + its distribution arm Birlik.
    • Feb.2002: Squirt acqd from Refremex AG.
  • Dec.2003:
    • Mar.2003: Adams Confectinery business acqd from Pfizer Inc. Brands = Halls, Trident, Dentyne/Dentyne Ice, Bubbaloo, Clorets, Cadbury, Chiclets, Swedish Fish, Sour Patch Kids, Beldent, Bazooka, Mantecol. Fully hived up into Cadbury Schweppes plc.
    • ?date?: The Natural Confectionery Company, an Australian business, acqd. Also 2 smaller acquisitions.
    • ?date?: Bouquet d'Or, a French confectionery business, sold to ??
  • Jan.2006:
    • Feb.2006: completed the sale of the Europe Beverages business (Schweppes, Orangina, TriNa, Oasis, La Casera, Apollinaris, Pampryl, Gini and Vida), leaving 4 regional operating units. Sold to 2 private equity firms, Lion Capital LLP and the Blackstone Group International.[3],[4][40]
    • Oct.2005: announced the intended disposal of non-core businesses. In 2005, sold Holland House Cooking wines; in early 2006, sold Grandma' Molasses; Feb.2006 announced will sell Bromor Foods, South African beverages business.
    • Combined Dr Pepper/Seven Up + Mott's + Snapple into one unit.
    • May.2005: Green & Black's Chocolate Ltd acqd. Purchased a 5% stake in 2002; acquired the outstanding 95%.
    • Gumlink sold to ??
    • Holland House Cooking Wines sold to ?Mizkan Holdings Co Ltd.?. p.72
  • Dec.2006:
    • Jun.2006: Dan Products, chewing gum business in South Africa, acqd
    • Apr.2006: Kent - further 30% stake acqd now = 95%
    • Allan Candy in Canada + Monkhill in the UK + Cottees Foods jams marmalades and toppings in Australia - announced intention to sell
    • May.2006: Dr Pepper/Seven Up Bottling Group, acqd outstanding 55% stake
    • Apr.2006: Slush Puppie sold to ??
    • Aug.2006: Bromor Foods (Pty) Ltd, Sth African beverages business, sold to ??
  • Dec.2007:
    • Oct.2007: decision to separate into two groups: Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc (beverages) + Cadbury plc (confectionery + Australian beverages).
    • Jun.2007: Kandia-Excelent acqd, in Romania.
  • Dec.2008 - Cadbury Holdings Ltd, subsid of Cadbury plc
    • May.2008: Cadbury plc floated on the London and New York Stock Exchanges
  • Cadbury Ltd, Dec.2011
    • IP = Chromium Acquisitions Ltd
    • Aug.2011: Kraft Foods Inc announced the split of its North American grocery business from its global snacks group - no impact on Cadbury.
  • Cadbury Ltd, Dec.2012
    • UP = Mondelez International Inc; IP = Chromium Acquisitions Ltd

tmp x

Trebor Bassett Ltd, was Trevor Ltd, holdco = Trebor Group Ltd.

  • Jan.1990: CS Sugar Confectionery Ltd, the Lion Confectionery Company Ltd, Trebor Ltd
  • Nov.1989: holdco Trebor Group Ltd became a subsid of Cadbury Schweppes plc. In Jan.1990, acqd the businesses of certain subsidiaries of Bassett Foods plc.
  • Jun.2011: Complete integration of Cadbury and Kraft UK operations was completed. The Cadbury UK Partnership was dissolved.
  • Feb.2010: Cadbury plc acqd by Kraft Foods Inc.
  • Aug.2009: Green & Black's business was hived up into the Cadbury UK partnership.
  • Jun.2008: Cadbury Ltd renamed to Cadbury UK Ltd; Lion Confectionery Company Ltd renamed to the Old Leo Company Ltd; the Partnership changed its name to "Cadbury UK".
  • May.2008: Cadbury Schweppes plc demerged its America Beverages business to Dr Pepper Snapple Group, and changed its name to Cadbury plc.
  • Feb.2008: Monkhill business sold to Tangerine Confectionery Ltd.
  • Mar.2003: trade + assets of Adams UK acquired by Cadbury Trebor Bassett Partnership.
  • May.2002: Kernels Snack Products Ltd acquired by Trebor Bassett Ltd.
  • Jul.2000: Cadbury Trebor Bassett Partnership formed, between Cadbury Ltd, Trebor Bassett Ltd and the Lion Confectionery Company Ltd; Trebor no longer traded on its own account.
  • Dec.1990 a/cs: CS Sugar Confectionery Ltd = fellow subsid of Cadbury Schweppes
  • Mar.1990 changed name to Trebor Bassett Ltd
  • Oct.1989 a/cs: In Nov.1989 Trebor Group Ltd, Trebor's holdco, was acquired by Cadbury Schweppes plc.
  • Dec.1987: Trebor Jellies Ltd sold to ??
  • Dec.1986: sold US subsid Trebor Confections Ltd to ??
  • Dec.1985: Maynards plc acquired, the confectionery division. Founded in 1880 by Charles Riley Maynard.ref
  • Dec.1984: Devon Candies (1979) Ltd acquired; renamed as Trebor Jellies Ltd.
  • By Dec.1974, had 50+ subsidiaries operating in 50+ countries; was the 4th largest confectionery manufacturing group in the UK.
  • Jan.1907: Trebor was founded as Robertson and Woodcock Ltd

Dr Pepper

  • Mar.1995: Cadbury Schweppes plc (30%) and the Carlyle Group (70%) bought Dr Pepper/Seven Up Inc, after it became insolvent.ref The company was renamed "Dr Pepper/Cadbury of North America Inc", but renamed again in 1997 to "Dr Pepper/Seven Up Inc".
  • Aug.1993: Cadbury Schweppes acquired Prudential Insurance Company's 22.2% stake, giving it a 25.9% holding.ref
  • Jan.1993: Dr Pepper/Seven Up Companies Inc went public through an IPO.
  • 1990: Nautilus Thirst Quencher, an energy drink sweetened entirely by NutraSweet's aspartame, was introduced to enable entry into the sport drink field.
  • May.1988: Dr Pepper/Seven Up Companies Inc Hicks & Haas merged 7 Up Company with Dr Pepper Inc.ref The new company's brands included: Dr Pepper, 7 Up, Welch’s, and IBC Root Beer and Cream Soda.
  • Aug.1986: Dr Pepper was sold to another private equity consortium, which included Hicks & Haas and Cadbury Schweppes, again in a leveraged buyout.ref
  • Apr.1984: Dr Pepper was acquired in a levered buyout by private equity firm Forstmann Little & CompanyWikipedia-W.svg, which took the company private.ref To pay off the debt, Forstmann & Little sold Canada Dry to Del Monte Foods Inc (then owned by tobacco company RJ Reynolds Industries Inc); as well as 9 bottling plants and other assets.ref
  • Feb.1982: Dr Pepper Company bought Canada Dry from Norton Simon IncWikipedia-W.svg, which had owned it since 1964.ref
  • 1981: Dr Pepper Company bought the rights to Welch's soft drinks.
  • 1946: Dr Pepper went public on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • 1904: Dr Pepper was introduced to the world at the St Louis World's Fair.
  • 1891: Artesian Mfg & Bottling Company was founded, which later becomes the Dr Pepper Company.
  • 1887: Charles Alderton and Robert Lazenby partnered to to produce the beverage.
  • 1885: Pharmacist Charles Alderton'a experiments led to "Dr Pepper's Phos-Ferrates".
Additional Sources: Company Histories,, Dr Pepper Snapple Group: History, History of 7UP

Seven-Up Company

  • 2018: Keurig Dr Pepper: Dr Pepper Snapple Group merged with Keurig Green Mountain.
  • 2008: The Dr Pepper Snapple Group was spun off from Cadbury Schweppes.
  • 1995: #Cadbury Schweppes bought Dr Pepper/Seven Up Companies Inc.
  • May.1988: Dr Pepper/Seven Up Companies Inc: the Hicks & Haas consortium merged Seven-Up Company with Dr Pepper Inc.ref
  • 1986: Philip Morris Companies Inc sold the Seven-Up Company in 2 parts:
  • Jun.1978: Philip Morris Inc bought a 97% shareholding in the company from its founding family.ref
  • 1969: Westinghouse Electric Corporation bought the Seven-Up Company's bottling operations (not the company itself). In 1987, Westinghouse sold the bottling business to ??.ref
  • 1967: Seven-Up Company went public.
  • 1929: Seven-Up was chosen as the new name from the beverage’s "seven natural flavors". The Howdy Company renamed itself as the "Seven-Up Company" in 1936.
  • 1920: Bib-Label Lithiated Lemon-Lime Soda was created in St Louis, USA by the Howdy Company.ref
Sources: History of 7UP

JS Fry & Sons

  • 1967: British Cocoa and Chocolate Company: JS Fry & Sons Ltd had been faced declining business; Cadbury took it over. The British Cocoa and Chocolate Company changed its name to Cadbury Group Ltd.ref
  • 1919: British Cocoa and Chocolate Company: Cadbury and JS Fry & Sons Ltd signed a partnership agreement, and created a new holding company to take over the assets of both businesses.ref
  • 1914: Fry's Turkish Delight was launched, flavoured with genuine Otto of Roses.ref
  • 1866: Fry's Chocolate Cream bar was first produced.
  • 1847: JS Fry produced the first solid chocolate bar.
  • 1822: JS Fry & Sons was established by Quaker Joseph Fry, in Bristol.

Canada Dry

  • 1969: Cadbury Schweppes plc: Schweppes Ltd merged with Cadbury Group Ltd.
  • 1938: Canada Dry had plants in 14 countries.
  • 1921 The first Canada Dry plant is opened in the USA.
  • 1890: John J McLaughlin opened a small plant in Toronto to manufacture soda water.

Schweppes plc

  • Mar.1969: Cadbury Schweppes plc: Schweppes Ltd merged with Cadbury Group Ltd.CH Cadbury also merged with Schweppes Australia, forming Cadbury Schweppes Pty Ltd.
  • Jan.1968: Typhoo Schweppes: Typhoo Tea teamed up with Schweppes to form a new company, which became Cadbury Schweppes Typhoo a year later when Cadbury joined with Schweppes.ref
  • 1897: Schweppes was floated as a public company.
  • May.1897: Schweppes Ltd was incorporated.CH
  • 1870: Gin and Tonic: Schweppes Indian Tonic Water and Dry Ginger Ale were created, giving rise to the famous drink.
  • 1850: Schweppes Australia: Schweppes was imported to Australia, with the first manufacturing site set up in Sydney in 1877.
  • 1843: Schweppes commercialised Malvern Water at the Holywell Spring in the Malvern Hills.
  • 1792: Jean Schweppe moved to London to develop the business. He retired in 1798, and sold most of his interest in the company to 3 partners.
  • 1783: Schweppervescence: Jean Jacob Schweppe, a German-born Swiss watchmaker and jeweller in Geneva, perfected the process for carbonating water and created the world's first carbonated mineral water.ref
Additional Sources: Schweppes, the first 200 years, Schweppes Australia: Our Heritage, Ginger Beer Review: Schweppes, Cadbury in Australia

Terry's of York

FixMe: Create a page for Eurazeo/CPK Group, and move Terry's into it.
  • Feb.2019: Terry's Chocolate Co. Ltd:OpenCorporates-sm.svg Carambar & Company set up a UK subsidiary to market the Terry's range in the UK market, based in London.
  • 2017: CPK SAS: Eurazeo, along with a group of other private investors, created CPK SAS (Carambar-Poulain-Krema) as a holdco for Carambar & Company SAS,OpenCorporates-sm.svg into which it moved 14 recently acquired confectionery brands, including: Carambar, Vichy Pastilles, Foal, Kréma, Poulain chocolate, La Pie Qui Chante, and Terry’s, as well as the Malabar and Suchard rocher licenses.ref,ref,ref
  • 2016: Eurazeo SE, a France and Luxembourg-registered private equity and venture capital firm,Craft Machine Inc,ref bought Terry's, along with a tranche of other brands, including Poulain, Carambar, La Pie Qui Chante and Krema, as well as the licenses for Pastilles Vichy, Suchard Pralines and Malabar.ref,ref Eurazeo reports etcArchive-org-sm.svg, Website
  • 2012: #Mondelēz International Inc inherited Terry's when Kraft split.ref
  • 2005: Terry's HQ and factory was closed by Kraft, with all Terry's products being produced in Poland, Sweden, Belgium, and Slovakia.ref Poland's Animal Welfare Ranking was "C".ref
  • 1993: Kraft General Foods International bought Terry's from United Biscuits, and amalgamated it with #Jacobs Suchard to create Terry's Suchard.
  • 1982: #Callard & Bowser was purchased from Beatrice Foods Company.
  • Jan.1982: United Biscuits (Holdings) Ltd acquired Joseph Terry & Sons Ltd from Colgate-Palmolive, using it to form the bulk of their confectionery division.ref,ref
  • Apr.1977: Colgate-Palmolive Company bought Joseph Terry & Sons Ltd from Trust House Forte Ltd.ref
  • 1963: Forte Holdings Ltd bought the company.ref,ref
  • 1923: Frank and Noel Terry joined the business, launching new products, and building "The Chocolate Works", a purpose-built factory, in 1926.
  • 1850: Joseph Terry & Sons Ltd: Joseph Terry died; three of his sons carried on, but it was Joseph Jnr who took it forwards. In ~1867, the firm was selling 400+ products with 13 different kinds of chocolate, 100 years after its founding.
  • 1828: Joseph Terry & Company: George Berry left the company, leaving Joseph Terry with the business, who built a good reputation with his cakes and comfits, sugared sweets, candied peel, marmalade and medicated lozenges.ref,ref
  • ~1825: Robert Berry and Company: Joseph Terry joined the firm when William Bayldon left.ref Robert Berry's son joined Joseph in a partnership after his father died, renaming the company.
  • 1767: Bayldon and Berry Confectionery: William Bayldon and Robert Berry opened a shop in York, England, selling cough lozenges, lemon and orange candied peel and other sweets.
Additional Sources: linklink

Callard & Bowser

Callard and Bowser LLC is an American company which is a Chicago, Illinois-based subsidiary of Wm Wrigley Jr Company.

  • 2005: The Bridgend plant was closed, with 90% of manufacturing transferred to the USA. Callard and Bowser LLCOpenCorporates-sm.svg ref,ref
  • Nov.2004: The Wrigley Company purchased Callard & Bowser, along with its Lifesavers brand, from Kraft. The company ceased all production of candy with the exception of 2 current brands - Altoids and Lifesavers. In 2017, some of Callard & Bowser's much-missed confections, including nougat and butterscotch, were re-launched by Champion & Reeves.ref
  • Mar.1993: Callard & Bowser-Suchard Inc: #Kraft General Foods International bought Terry's of York from United Biscuits, and amalgamated it with #Jacobs Suchard.[41]
  • Aug.1988: Callard & Bowser: the TLC Group, a New York investment company which owned Beatrice International Holdings agreed to sell Callard & Bowser to United Biscuits plc.[42]
  • Mar.1982: Beatrice Foods Company of Chicago, an American conglomerate, bought Callard & Bowser, Nuttall from Guinness, who wanted to focus on their core brewing operations.[43]
  • Jul.1961: Rolls Confectionery Ltd of Greenford, Middlesex was purchased from J Lyons & Company, who had decided to withdraw from the confectionery business.[44]
  • ?date?: Riley Brothers of Halifax (Toffee Rolls) and Lavells (a confecionery chain) were acquired.
  • 1951 (1953?): Arthur Guinness & Sons (Guinness, Son & Company? Arthur Guinness Sons & Company Ltd?) acquired the business.
  • 1948: William Nuttall of Doncaster, known for its Mintoes boiled sweets, was acquired.
  • 1933: Major AE Allnatt bought the business, relocating it to Park Royal.
  • Post-WWI: James Callard, Daniel's son, sold the business to his son-in-law.
  • ?date?: § Smith & Company, a Bridgend, Wales-based manufacturer of Altoids Curiously Strong Mints, was acquired and hived up.
  • 1872: Daniel Callard bought out John Bowser's stake.
  • 1861: Callard & Bowser: Daniel Callard and John Bowser began to focus on confectionery production.
  • 1779: Daniel Callard and John Bowser, two Scottish brothers-in-law, formed a wholesale grocery business in St John's Wood.
Sources: Let's Look Again, Grace's Guide

Smith & Company

ToDo: altoids.comArchive-org-sm.svg, link, link, link

Freia Marabou

  • 1993: #Kraft General Foods International acquired Freia Marabou, then Scandinavia's premier confectioner. The Freia Marabou acquisition included Daim, Japp, and Twist confection brands, as well as Estrella snacks (introduced in 1946).
  • 1990: Freia Marabou: A/S Freia and AB Marabou became one company, creating the largest Scandinavian company exclusively focused on branded food.
  • 1965: Estrella: AB Marabou acquired partial ownership of the Swedish snack food producer.
  • 1916: AB Marabou was established in Sweden by Freia A/S, with Freia owning 60% of the new company, and Swedish interests owning the other 40%.
  • 1898: AS Freia, a confectionery firm, was founded in Norway by innovative marketer Johan Throne Holst.
Sources: link

Jacobs Suchard AG

ToDo: link,link
  • 1993: Kraft Jacobs Suchard: Philip Morris combined Kraft General Foods Europe and Jacobs Suchard AG.ref
  • Aug.1990: #Kraft General Foods International acquired Jacobs Suchard AG (except for its USA subsidiary), making the company number one in the European roast and ground coffee market, and a leader in confectionery.ref Acquired brands included Carte Noire, Grand Mere and Jacobs coffee, and Suchard, Milka, Toblerone and Cote d'Or chocolates. Jacobs Suchard continued to operate under its name.ref
  • 1987: Brach's Candy, a candy and sweets company in Illinois, was purchased from the American Home Products Corporation.
  • 1987: Cote d'Or, a leading Belgian chocolate maker (established in 1883), was acquired (66%) by the Suchard company.ref
  • 1982: Jacobs Suchard: Jacobs Kaffee merged with Suchard-Tobler (Interfood) to form Jacobs Suchard in Europe. Jacobs Kaffee was established in Bremen, Germany by businessman Johann Jacobs in 1895.
  • 1982: Interfood was acquired by Klaus Johann Jacobs, and became part of the company Jacobs Suchard.ref,ref,ref
  • 1982: Jacobs Suchard acquired the coffee brands Grand Mere (introduced in 1950) and Carte Noire (introduced in 1978).
  • 1970: Interfood: Suchard and Tobler combined.
  • 1970: Suchard Tobler: the Suchard company and Tobler, another Swiss chocolate maker, merged.
  • 1908: Toblerone, the triangle-shaped chocolate bar, was introduced by Swiss chocolate maker Theodore Tobler.
  • 1901: Milka chocolate was introduced to the Swiss market. Karl Russ-Suchard combined an unusual purple packaging with a cow, symbolizing their use of milk.ref
  • 1884: Philippe's daughter Eugénie Suchard and her husband Karl Russ-Suchard, took over after he died.ref,ref,ref,ref
  • 1825: Philippe Suchard opened his first confectionery shop in Neuchatel, Switzerland.



  1. ^ The Brand Audit Report, Vol.1 Over the next 10 years, plastic production is slated to increase by 40%. Traditionally made from oil byproducts, but now increasingly made using fracked gas. Recycling is not a feasible solution to the plastic pollution crisis. Many plastics are very difficult, or impossible, to recycle. Megacorps make $billions of profits from the plastic-wrapped products - but leave communities to pay for and manage the negative impacts. As the food and products contained in plastic are consumed, people are accumulating phthalates and endocrine-disrupting chemicals in their bloodstreams. Break Free From Plastic, Oct.2018.
  2. ^ Prop 37: The California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act. Katherine Spiers, KCET, Jul.09.2012.
  3. ^ The many ways Cadbury is losing its magic. Harry Wallop, presenter of Channel 4’s "Dispatches: Secrets of Cadbury", reviews Mondelez. Harry Wallop, The Telegraph, Mar.21.2016.
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  5. ^ Chocolate's Dark Secret: How the Cocoa Industry Destroys National Parks. Mars, Hershey's, Nestlé, Mondelez, Lindt and Ferrero were connected to cocoa from sources linked to illegal deforestation. Etelle Higonnet, Marisa Bellantonio, Glenn Hurowitz, Mighty Earth, Sept.2017.
  6. ^ One Year In, Chocolate Industry Commitments Fail to Stop Deforestation. Over half of Ivorian protected areas reviewed saw deforestation increase after corporate pledges. Etelle Higonnet, Glenn Hurowitz, Abdul Tejan Cole, Alex Armstrong, Liviya James, Mighty Earth, Dec.2018.
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  20. ^ Shredded Wheat History Chronology. Topher's Castle. Accessed Jan.20.2020.
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  22. ^ $2.6-Billion Nestle Bid Ends Battle for Perrier. George White, Los Angeles Times, Mar.25.1992.
  23. ^ Dart & Kraft Calls Spinoff 'Premark'. The New York Times, Sept.09.1986.
  24. ^ ITW makes big leap with Premark. Sallie L Gaines, Chicago Tribune, Sept.10.1999. Original archived on Nov.28.2018.
  25. ^ Whirlpool Cleared To Buy Kitchenaid. The New York Times, Jan.30.1986.
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