Iceland Foods Ltd

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Iceland-Foods-2015.svg

Iceland Foods owns and operates 942 retail stores in the UK, providing frozen, chilled, fresh, and food cupboard products. The company also offers non-food products, such as baby and toddler products, household essentials, laundry products, pet products, reusable bags, and toiletries; and drinks, which include alcohol, chilled juices, hot drinks, soft drinks, and still and flavored water. In addition, Iceland exports products to southern Africa and the Middle East. Iceland is headquartered in Deeside, North Wales. Craft Machine Inc

After a few "Dark Years", Iceland has consistently featured in the Sunday Times "Best Big Companies to work for in the UK" since 2013.[1][2] Malcolm Walker CBE, Malcolm Walker (businessman)Wikipedia-W.svg

Plastic Packaging

In Jan.2018, Iceland announced that it would end the use of plastic for all of its own-brand products by the end of 2023.[3][4] Even better would be if Iceland banned all plastic packaging from its stores.[5]
  • Jan.15.2018: Iceland supermarket vows to eliminate plastic on all own-branded products. Retailer outlines 5-year aim to replace all plastic packaging with trays made of paper and pulp. Iceland is the first major retailer to commit to eliminate plastic packaging for all its own-brand products. Iceland recently carried out a survey in which 80% of 5,000 people polled said they would endorse the move to go plastic-free. Nicola Slawson, The Guardian.
  • Jan.14.2018: What are supermarkets doing to fight plastic? Plastic waste is "one of the great environmental scourges of our time". These are the words of Prime Minister Theresa May, who has pledged to ban all avoidable plastic waste in the UK by 2042. Despite extending the 5p charge on single-use plastic bags, major retailers in England still sold 2.1bn in the last financial year. Organisations like Greenpeace UK are sceptical about the plan, citing Mrs May's "vague aspirations". So what are Britain's 10 biggest supermarkets doing to combat the "scourge" of plastic? Iceland announced plans in Jan.2018 to eliminate or drastically reduce plastic packaging of all its own-label products by the end of 2023. It had previously supported the idea of a deposit return scheme for bottles. BBC News.

Timelines

ToDo: Our Story, link, UK Food Retailing, 1980-2002.[6], Malcolm Walker's bio

Iceland Midco Ltd (07912960) > Iceland Vlnco Ltd (07939288) > Iceland Topco Ltd (07875222)

Iceland Foods Ltd

  • Jun.2020: Brait SE: Malcolm Walker and CEO Tarsem Dhaliwal purchased South Africa's Brait's 63% stake, establishing a new company "Iceland Foods". They will buy the shares in three tranches: £60m (Jun.2020); £26.9m (Jul.2021) and £28.1m (Jul.2022).[7]
  • Mar.2019: Iceland Online: a new, state-of-the-art website was launched, offering significantly improved mobile experience, a radical new look and feel, and a new payment model.[8]:Mar.2019
  • 2018: Plastic Free: Iceland became the first major retailer in the world to commit to eliminating plastic packaging from its own label products, to be completed by 2023.[9] Iceland also became the first UK supermarket to install trial reverse vending machines for plastic bottles in UK stores, providing refunds on an amazing 311,500 bottles by the end of the year.[10]
  • Apr.2017: Palm Oil: Iceland announced its intention of removing palm oil from all its own-brand products, in response to the continuing destruction of the tropical rainforests.[8]:Mar.2018 Although well-meaning, the decision is unhelpful - it would be far more useful to ensure its palm oil supply chain was 100% sustainable.
  •  ??.2015: Brait SE purchased additional shares from Iceland's other shareholders, increasing its stake in the business from 19% to 63%.[11][12]
  • Sept.2014 The Food Warehouse, a new concept of larger stores located mainly in retail parks, was rolled out with 6 stores opening by the end of the year.[8]:Mar.2015 TheFoodWarehouse.com
  • May.2014:
    World-Wide-Web-Anton-Inyushkin.svg
    Online Shopping was reintroduced, having been dropped in 2007.[13]
  • Nov.2013: Iceland Appliances: Iceland launched a new online electrical appliances webshop in partnership with DRL Ltd,OpenCorporates-sm.svg a subsidiary of AO World plc.[14]
  • Nov.2013: Expansion: Iceland bought the 7 Iceland stores in the Republic of Ireland operated by its franchisee AIM Group.[15]
  • Sept.2012:
    Cooltrader.svgDeals-Arrow-Right.svg
    Cooltrader was sold to Heron Foods Ltd, which subsequently converted all outlets to the Heron Foods brand.[16][17]
  • Jun.2012: Loxton Frozen Foods Ltd, an important supplier of ready meals to Iceland, was acquired together with its subsidiary, Loxton Foods Ltd, later renamed as Iceland Manufacturing Ltd.[16][8]:Mar.2013 Loxtons.co.ukArchive-org-sm.svg, LoxtonFoodCo.comArchive-org-sm.svg http://www.loxtonfoodco.com/
  • Mar.2012: Management Buyout: Landsbanki (67%) and Glitnir (10%) wished to sell their respective stakes in Iceland. Private equity firms such as Bain Capital LP and BC Partners LLP were hungrily circling, as were rival grocers.[18][19] However, an MBO was conducted by founder and chief executive Malcolm Walker and other managers (43%); Graham Kirkham (founder of sofa retailer DFS Furniture plc, now owned by private equity firm Advent International Corporation), South African investment firm Brait SE (18.7%); and Dubai-based multinational conglomerate Landmark Group (62%).[20][21] Following the MBO, Oswestry Topco Ltd became the groups top-level holdco, later renamed as Iceland Topco Ltd. OpenCorporates-sm.svg
  • Sept.2009: Iceland Appliances: Dalton House Appliances Ltd,OpenCorporates-sm.svg a venture selling electrical appliances within 132 Iceland stores, was exited to allow Iceland to concentrate on food retailing. The company was sold to two of its management.[22] Iceland AppliancesArchive-org-sm.svg
  • Jul.2009:
    Expert-Logistics.pngDeals-Arrow-Right.svg
    Expert Logistics Ltd was sold to DRL Holdings Ltd.ref
  • Jan.2009: Expansion: Iceland bought 51 stores from Woolworths Group plc, after it entered administration.[23]
  • Jan.2007: Iceland Foods Group Ltd was incorporated as the new holdco, taking over Ice Acquisitions Ltd. OpenCorporates-sm.svg

Big Food Group plc

The Big Food Group was a food retail and wholesale company based in the UK, created in Feb.2002 after Iceland Group plc acquired Booker Group plc. It was then purchased in 2005 by a consortium led by Icelandic private equity firm Baugur Group, and split into Iceland Foods Ltd, Booker Cash & Carry Ltd and Woodward Foodservice Ltd. Woodward and Iceland were sold, leaving Booker as the sole subsidiary.


  • Jun.2008: Baugur Group hf sold all its assets in Booker Cash & Carry,[24] only weeks after its founder was found guilty of accounting irregularities.[25] Baugur collapsed in Feb.2009,[26] amidst the Icelandic financial crisis.[27][28]
  • Jun.2007: Booker Group plc:
    Blueheath-Holdings.svg
    Blueheath Holdings plc acquired the Big Food Group in a reverse takeover, with consortium Giant Topco Ltd's shareholders becoming majority shareholders (90.36%).[29] Blueheath Holdings plc subsequently changed its name to Booker Group plc, and resumed trading on the AIM.[30]:Mar.2007
  • Aug.2005:
    Woodward-Foodservice-2002.svgDeals-Arrow-Right.svg
    Woodward Foodservice Ltd was subject to an MBO (WF Group Holdings Ltd > WF Group Ltd). Ownership: Baugur Group (BG Holding ehf), Management, and Talden Holding SA.[31][32]:Mar.2006
  • Mar.2005:
    Cooltrader.svgDeals-Arrow-Left.svg
    Cooltrader Ltd, a company founded by Malcolm Walker in Mar.2001, was acquired by Iceland's parent company, Icebox Holdings Ltd.[33][34]
  • Mar.2005: Iceland Foods Ltd: Giant Topco Ltd sold its interest in the Iceland business to BG Holding ehf,[35] Icebox Holdings Ltd's sole shareholder, controlled by Icelandic banks Landsbanki hf (67%) and Glitnir Banki hf (10%).[36][8]:Mar.2005 Malcolm Walker was reinstated as manager. Ownership chain: BG Holding ehf/Icebox Holdings Ltd/Ice Acquisitions Ltd/.
  • Feb.2005:
    Baugur-Group.svgDeals-All-Change.svg
    Baugur Group hf, an Icelandic investment firm, led a consortium which took over the Big Food Group Ltd.[37] Ownership chain: Giant Topco Ltd/Giant Midco Ltd/Giant BidCo Ltd. Giant Topco Ltd was financed by Icelandic banks Landsbanki and Glitnir.[30]:Apr.2005 Giant BidCo was owned by Baugur (43%), Tom Hunter/West Coast Capital/TBH Trading Ltd (13.9%), Kevin Stanford (8.9%).[38] The group was split up[39] into its business unitsArchive-org-sm.svg:
    • Retail: Iceland Foods Ltd
    • Wholesale: Booker Cash & Carry Ltd
    • Foodservice: Woodward Foodservice Ltd
    • Logistics: Expert Logistics
    • Giant Property Consortium Ltd,OpenCorporates-sm.svg a joint venture between West Coast Capital/West Coast Capital Prestven Ltd, HBOS plc/Uberior Ventures Ltd, and Prestbury Investment Holdings Ltd acquired The Big Food Group's property portfolio.[40] Icebox Holdings Ltd subsequently repurchased the ~750 Iceland properties, with the rest being sold on to "a 3rd party" in Mar.2005.[41]
  • 2002-2004: Jul.2002: 4th profit warning issued after a decision to scrap buy-one-get-one-free promotional offers at Iceland backfired. Oct.2002: As big institutions bailed, Baugur acquired a 20% stake in the business. Jan.2003: Baird analyst Paul Smiddy published a damning 22-page research note and was barred from analysts' meeting by Grimsey. Dec.2004: sales at Iceland had fallen by 3.9%.[38] Big Food Group's pension scheme had a deficit of £192m.
  • Feb.2002: Big Food Group plc: after the Booker acquisition, Iceland Group plc changed its name. Sale and leaseback agreements were entered into for two of Iceland's freehold properties with Axa Sun Life plc.[8]:Mar.2002 Grimsey had identified the convenience store sector as a key way forward, attempting to buy Londis, but sales continued to fall while costs escalated, as did management salaries.[42] In early 2005, Grimsey left with cashed-in shares worth £2.2m and an undisclosed payoff.[41] He later went on to oversee Focus DIY's collapse into administration.[43][44]
Additional Sources: Corporate Profile: History. The Big Food Group plc. Original archived on Sept.11.2004.The Big Food Group. The Big Food Group plc. Original archived on Aug.28.2004.

Iceland Group plc

Iceland went from strength to strength, introducing a home delivery service, ditching genetically modified ingredients in its own-label products, introducing "GreenFreeze" technology for its fridges and freezers; and launching the UK's first nationwide home shopping service. Booker, the UK’s largest cash-and-carry operator, was acquired with the aim of exploiting buying and other synergies between the two businesses.

Jan.2001 New CEO William GrimseyWikipedia-W.svg, together with sidekick William Hoskins (both ex-Wickes) came on board.[45] Grimsey and Hoskins claimed to identify "massive problems", plunging Iceland into a £145m loss. Iceland's founder Malcolm Walker was forced to leave.[46]
Jun.2000
Booker-Group-1990.svgDeals-Arrow-Left.svg
Booker Group plc, the UK's largest cash and carry operator with a 33% market share and 177 outlets, was acquired.[30]:Mar.2001 The deal gave Iceland a 61.1% of the merged group.[47] Booker also owned the Londis, Budgens and Premier brands, which operate on a franchise basis.
Mar.2000 Iceland.co.uk: Iceland re-branded itself with its web url, to help establish the online grocery shopping operation as a leader in the sector.[48] WebsiteArchive-org-sm.svg
Jan.2000 BHS Food Store: despite an agreement with BHS to open 100 Iceland food halls in their stores,[30]:Jan.2000 the idea was dropped after BHS's shareholders made it clear what they thought of the idea.[49]
Oct.1999
World-Wide-Web-Anton-Inyushkin.svg
Iceland-Shop.co.uk, the UK's first national food home shopping service, was launched. WebsiteArchive-org-sm.svg
Oct.1999 Deep Freeze Supplies Ltd, Scotland's largest independent foodservice company, was acquired and merged with the Woodward foodservice division.[30]:Jan.2000
??.1999 Rossfish was acquired.[50]
Oct.1998 GreenFreeze: Iceland implemented the removal of environmentally harmful CFC gases from its depots, stores, vehicles and appliances. The Kyoto range used environmentally-friends hydrocarbon refrigerants, and were endorsed by Greenpeace.
May.1998
Non-GMO-Label.svg
Non-GMO: Iceland developed its own "Food You Can Trust" range, free of all GM ingredients. This was followed up during 1999 with the removal of a range of artificial additives in hen feed, with all own-brand lines manufactured since Oct.1999 being guaranteed free of artificial colours and flavours, and also eliminating artificial preservatives where possible. Aspartame was removed from all own-brand lines; artifical dyes were removed from eggs; GM ingredients were removed from all poultry feed.
Sept.1997 Home Delivery Service: the roll-out was completed of what was, at the time, a unique service.
Jul.1997
Woodward-Foodservice-2002.svg
Woodward Foodservice Ltd: Iceland renamed its Woodward division.
Jul.1997 Cold Move, a foodservice business, was acquired and hived up into the Woodward operation.[30]:Jan.1998
Mar.1997 Woodward Frozen Foods (Rhyl) Ltd, a North Wales-based operation, was acquired from the Woodward family founders.[32]:Dec.1997 Woodward was the 3rd-largest foodservice provider to the UK catering and restaurant markets, and enabled Iceland to expand its foodservice division.
Mar.1993 Iceland Group plc: Iceland Frozen Foods Holdings plc changed its name.

Iceland Frozen Foods Holdings plc

Iceland-Frozen-Foods-1989.svg
By 1978, Iceland had 28 stores, and was good to go, entering on a programme of expansion via acquisitions, both at home and in Europe. A highly successful flotation on the London Stock Exchange in 1984 provided the wherewithal for the takeover of larger rival Bejam in Jan.1989, creating a national chain with 465 stores. By 1993, Iceland had grown to ~750 stores.

Feb.1993 Iceland at Littlewoods: agreed with Littlewoods Chain Stores Ltd to open food halls in 48 Littlewoods stores.
Dec.1991 Au Gel SA: a 50% stake in the French food retailer was acquired.[30]:Dec.1991 Au Gel failed to thrive, and was shut down within a year.
Mar.1989
Bejam.svgDeals-Arrow-Left.svg
#Bejam Freezer Foods Centres Ltd was acquired, after purchasing Bejam founder John Apthorp's shareholdings.[8]:Dec.1989 All Bejam stores were subsequently rebranded under the Iceland fascia.
Wizard Wine Ltd: as part of the transaction, Wizard was sold to its chairman John Apthorp, managing director Tim How, and trading director Tony Mason.[51]
Sept.1987 Fulham Frozen Foods Ltd, based in East Yorkshire, was acquired.
Oct.1986 Freezway, a north-eastern Scottish store chain, was purchased.[30]:Jan.1987
Sept.1986 Igloo Frozen Foods was acquired.
Dec.1985 Orchard Foods (Orchard Market (Rettendon) Ltd), a failed freezer centre chain with 12 stores in in Chelmsford, south-east England, was acquired from its receivers.[30]:Dec.1985
1985 Logo: Terence ConranWikipedia-W.svg, of Habitat fame, designed a red and white logo to replace the unimpressive blue and white 1970s version.[48]
Sept.1984
London-Stock-Exchange.svg
Iceland Frozen Foods Holdings plc: Iceland Frozen Foods Holdings Ltd re-registered as a plc and floated on the London Stock Exchange.
Iceland Frozen Foods plc: Iceland Frozen Foods Ltd re-registered as a public limited company.
Feb.1983 St Catherine's Freezer Centres Ltd, a failing 18-store chain of frozen food centres, was acquired.[30]:Jan.1983 The business was hived up into Iceland Frozen Foods plc in Jan.1984.[30]:Dec.1984
Dec.1980 Iceland Frozen Foods Holdings Ltd was incorporated as a holdco,OpenCorporates-sm.svg with Iceland Frozen Foods Ltd becoming its subsidiary.OpenCorporates-sm.svg

Origins

Iceland-Frozen-Foods-1970.svg
1978 The first purpose-built Iceland freezer centre was opened, selling own-brand products.[50]
1975 Woolworth fired Walker and Hinchcliffe when it discovered their "job on the side", freeing the two founders to commit themselves full-time to developing their fledgling business.
Nov.1970 Iceland Frozen Foods Ltd: Malcolm Walker and Peter Hinchcliffe, two Woolworth employees, opened their first shop in Oswestry, North Wales, selling loose frozen foods to people without freezers. OpenCorporates-sm.svg
Additional Sources: The Iceland Story. Iceland Foods Ltd. Original archived on Mar.12.2008.The Iceland Story. Iceland Foods Ltd. Accessed Apr.10.2020.

Bejam Group plc

Bejam.svg
Bejam originated as a retailer of frozen foods, gradually diversifying over time to selling grocery items and domestic appliances (refrigerators, freezers, microwaves, etc). Appliance servicing, as well as freezer insurance policies, became increasingly important aspects. After acquisition by Iceland, Bejam's operations were hived up, with the company becoming a property holdco for Iceland Group plc.

  •  ??.1989: Victor Value: the 46 discount stores were offered to the highest bidder, with Kwik Save being the only interested party. A price was finally agreed.[52]
  • Jan.1989:
    Iceland-Frozen-Foods-1989.svgDeals-All-Change.svg
    #Iceland Frozen Foods Holdings plc acquired its larger rival after purchasing Bejam founder John ApthorpWikipedia-W.svg's shareholdings.[53][52] All stores were rebranded under the Iceland fascia.
    Wizard Wine Ltd: as part of the deal, Wizard chairman John Apthorp, managing director Tim How, and trading director Tony Mason bought the company.[51]
  •  ??.1987: Wizard Wine Ltd: Bejam acquired a 75% stake in the company, subsequently increased to 95%. Wizard operated two warehouses in the London area, retailing a range of wines and beers in bulk.AR-Jul.1987
  • Jun.1987: Lowfreeze: 13 stores in Scotland were purchased from Wm Low & Company plc, whose frozen foods offshoot traded as "Lowfreeze".ref,AR-Jul.1987
  •  ??.1986: Sainsbury's Freezer Centres, launched by Sainsbury's in response to specialist chains such as Bejam, were acquired.[54]pic-link
  • Feb.1986:
    Victor-Value.svgDeals-Arrow-Left.svg
    Victor Value, a 45-outlet chain of discount grocery stores, was purchased from Tesco plc,AR-Jun.1986 and rebranded as "Bejam".
  • Sept.1985: Olaf Foods Group: Bejam's 50% interest in the manufacturer and distributor of frozen food was sold to ?? AR-Jun.1986
  • Feb.1982: Bejam Group plc: the group re-registered as a public limited company.
  • AR-Jun.1980: acquired 15 freezer food centres from Fine Fare Ltd.
  • AR-Jun.1980: Trumps Restaurants Ltd and Hungry Fisherman: entered the fast food restaurant industry. Exited in 1981.
  • AR-Jun.1980: acquired 34 restaurants from EMI Ltd; integrated into the group's Restaurant Division.
  • AR-Jun.1974: Purchased a 50% interest in Smeets Diepvries BV, a Dutch wholesale distributor, with a view to opening freezer food centres through a new subsidiary, Bejam Netherlands BV.
  • Feb.1982: Bejam Group Ltd was incorporated. Bejam sold electrical appliances under the Bejam brand name, mostly freezers and refrigerators, but also microwave ovens and dishwashers.
  • ?date?: Bejam: John Apthorp had the idea of selling only frozen foods. The company name was derived from the initials of the Apthorp family directors' first names: Brian, Eric, John, and Millie.
  • 1968: EAD Apthorp: The Apthorp family business was potato merchants, specialising in local deliveries in and around Edgware and Stanmore.

Articles

  • Jan.02.2019: Plastic bottle deposit scheme in UK proving hit with shoppers. ‘Reverse vending machines’ receive 311,500 bottles to date, says supermarket Iceland. Shoppers have received the equivalent of more than £30,000 in total for recycling plastic bottles in the first supermarket trial using “reverse vending machines”, introduced last year at 5 sites (- while Gove sits on his hands and kicks the issue into the long "consultation" grass.) Tesco is also carrying out a trial, as are Morrisons and the Co-op, but none have yet published their results. Rebecca Smithers, The Guardian.
  • Nov.19.2018: Iceland Christmas advert: body that refused permission for palm oil TV ad hit by ‘storm of abuse’. Clearcast has closed its Facebook page, its switchboard, and removed staff pictures from its website after people circulated them online. Clearcast said the advert breached rules on political advertising as it had been made in conjunction with Greenpeace, and did not approve the film to be shown on TV. The uproar at the decision led to almost one million people signing a petition calling for the advert to be aired. Benjamin Butterworth, The iNews.
  • Nov.10.2018: ‘Political’ Iceland ad is banned from TV. A Christmas advert by the Iceland chain that highlights the deforestation caused by palm oil has been banned from television for being too political. The commercial, voiced by Emma Thompson, and originally produced byGreenpeace, features a cartoon orangutan and shows how the spread of palm oil plantations is harming the rainforest. Clearcast, which approves or rejects adverts for broadcast, said it was “concerned” that the promotion did not comply with legislation on political advertising. Iceland has already announced that it will remove palm oil from its own-label food by the end of this year. The expansion of palm oil plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia has been blamed for mass deforestation, threatening species including orangutans. The industry says that palm oil is efficient and sustainable. Patrick Moore, The Times.
  • Apr.20.2018: Palmed Off. In January, Richard Walker committed the supermarket chain founded by his father to becoming plastic-free within 5 years. Last week he announced that a year from now no Iceland own-brand products would contain palm oil, the intensive cultivation of which has led to rampant deforestation in southeast Asia. Mr Walker has now discovered that his idealism comes at a price. A slick and borderline nasty advert mocking Mr Walker’s opposition to palm oil has popped up on Twitter. Purporting to be the response of small family farmers protecting their livelihoods against corporate ignorance, the advert is actually funded by the Malaysian govt. As the European Union moves towards banning imports of palm oil, the Malaysian authorities are hitting back in defence of an important export. They have chosen to do so via a personal attack on Iceland’s boss, evidently judging that his youth and background make him vulnerable. Mr Walker should hold his nerve. Experts are unanimous that the ecological impact of proliferating palm plantations is severe, resulting in a significant increase in carbon emissions and a decrease in indigenous animal populations. The Times.
  • Apr.20.2018: Palm oil lobby smears Iceland boss Richard Walker. When the eco-friendly son of Iceland’s multimillionaire founder announced last week that the supermarket would cut palm oil from all its own-brand foods, he was lauded by environmentalists. Yet his commitment to green causes has enraged palm oil interests in southeast Asia, where tropical rainforests are being destroyed to clear space for oil palms, from which the product is harvested. A lobbying group part-funded by the Malaysian govt has bought Twitter adverts in Britain smearing the younger Mr Walker as a Bentley-driving trust funder who inherited his supermarket from “Daddy”. The adverts promote a slickly produced video that dismisses the 37-year-old executive as “Trust Fund Richard” and accuses him of taking a polluting jet to Asia to lecture Malaysians about the environment. “Richard only wants to attack poor palm oil small farmers in Africa and Asia,” the video claims. “Don’t be like Richard.” Human Faces of Palm Oil, the lobby group behind the campaign, claims to “advocate on behalf of Malaysian small farmers”. However, several of the organisations involved are agencies of the Malaysian govt, including the Malaysian Palm Oil Council and the Federal Land Development Authority. Environmental activists familiar with the Malaysian govt’s combative approach to palm oil critics said it was likely that a western public relations agency was involved with the campaign. The Sarawak Report website run by Clare Rewcastle Brown, a British investigative journalist and sister-in-law of Gordon Brown, has chronicled alleged corruption in Malaysia. “Malaysia govt entities have long form in hiring British and American PR companies who personally vilify anyone who questions palm oil,” she said. Matthew Moore, The Times.

References

  1. ^ Best 100 Mid Companies 2020. Best Companies Ltd, 2020.
  2. ^ How did Iceland become the top online supermarket? Store enjoys a surprise revival after taking Aldi and Lidl’s lead in offering cut-price luxury to lure in the middle classes Sarah Butler, The Guardian, Feb.18.2017.
  3. ^ Supermarket Iceland targets plastic-free own label ranges by 2023. Reuters, Jan.16.2018.
  4. ^ Iceland supermarket chain aims to be plastic free by 2023. BBC News, Jan.16.2018.
  5. ^ Iceland aims to be plastic-free across own label range by 2023. Iceland Foods Ltd, Jan.16.2018.
  6. ^ Corporate Strategy in UK Food Retailing, 1980-2002. Geoffrey Owen, London School of Economics, Institute of Management, Feb.2003. - Background paper by Geoffrey Owen.pdf Original archived
  7. ^ Iceland founder takes full ownership after buying £115m stake. Sahar Nazir, Retail Gazette, Jun.09.2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Iceland Foods Ltd. formerly: Iceland Frozen Foods Ltd (Apr.1973-Sept.1984); Iceland Frozen Foods plc (Sept.1984-Jun.2000); Iceland Foods plc (Jun.2000-Feb.2005). Companies House. Accessed Nov.20.2019.
  9. ^ Retailer Iceland to Go Plastic-free. Frozen Food Europe, Feb.15.2018.
  10. ^ Sustainability at Iceland. Doing it Right at Iceland.. Accessed Nov.19.2019.
  11. ^ Christo Wiese's Brait Ups Iceland Stake in $261 Million Deal. Janice Kew, Bloomberg News, Oct.02.2015.
  12. ^ Brait to put New Look, Virgin Active and Iceland stakes up for sale. Sarah Butler, The Guardian, Nov.27.2019.
  13. ^ Iceland to Launch click and collect service. Sarah Vizard, Marketing Week, Dec.23.2013.
  14. ^ Iceland Foods launches Iceland Appliances online. GC Magazine, Nov.29.2013.
  15. ^ Iceland acquires its seven franchised Irish stores. Retail Week, Nov.25.2013.
  16. ^ a b Iceland delivers a year of good progress. Iceland Foods Ltd, Jun.07.2013. Original archived on Apr.17.2020.
  17. ^ Heron swoops for Iceland's Cooltrader stores. Insider Media Ltd, Sept.05.2012.
  18. ^ Trade bidders complicate Iceland auction. Marietta Cauchi, Market Watch, Nov.18.2011.
  19. ^ Banks prep 1 bln stg debt for Iceland buyout. Reuters, Jan.31.2012.
  20. ^ Founder buys back Iceland Foods. Reuters, Mar.09.2012.
  21. ^ Iceland Foods CEO Buys Frozen Food Chain for $2.3 Billion. Sarah Shannon, Reuters, Mar.09.2012.
  22. ^ Iceland Foods closes Appliances Showrooms. Iceland Foods Ltd, Sept.24.2009.
  23. ^ Iceland buys 51 Woolworths stores. BBC News, Jan.09.2009.
  24. ^ Baugur sells Booker stake as part of focus on retail. George MacDonald, Retail Week, Jun.24.2008. Original archived on Feb.09.2009.
  25. ^ Baugur boss loses court appeal. Reuters, Jun.07.2008.
  26. ^ Iceland court rejects more credit shelter for Baugur. Reuters, Mar.11.2009.
  27. ^ Hamleys investor seeks protection. BBC News, Feb.04.2009.
  28. ^ Former Icelandic retail baron found guilty of tax evasion. Reuters, Feb.07.2013.
  29. ^ Blueheath in Booker reverse takeover. The Grocer, May.09.2007.
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