Government Subsidies

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  • DDG search
  • Full Fact: "subsidies" search, FullFact.org
  • W:State aid (EU)
  • Subsidies for positive externalities, Economics Help
  • Government Grants, SmallBusiness.co.uk
  • 2009.10.23: State aid: public services of general economic interest, Gov.uk
  • 2018.01.01: Welcome to the future: cash-starved economies compete to give ever more generous hand outs to global titans. Currently forbidden by EU state aid rules (Amazon), Twitter, Jo Maugham QC, @JolyonMaugham
    • 2012.11.05: Focus on Ford: The £80m EU loan for Ford's Turkish Transit plant, Daily Echo, Matt Smith
  • Feb.05.2019: UK carmakers allotted £150m in state aid in attempt to save jobs. Although Nissan accounted for lion’s share, other firms offered £millions in support after Brexit vote. Govt pledges of £80m in support to Nissan were part of a package of almost £150m in state aid promised to leading carmakers since the EU referendum in 2016, as ministers tried to prevent an exodus of jobs from the UK. Support offered since Oct.2016 has totalled at least £64.1m. The state aid will be paid via a variety of avenues, including through the £2.6bn Regional Growth Fund and Innovate UK, a non-departmental govt body. Some of the aid was delivered via climate change agreements, in which companies receive tax breaks in exchange for lowering their emissions. Toyota, BMW, Jaguar Land Rover, Aston Martin Lagonda. Jasper Jolly, Dan Sabbagh, The Guardian.
  • Feb.04.2019: Nissan was offered secret state aid to cope with Brexit, minister concedes. Business secretary Greg Clark has been forced to admit the existence of a previously secret package of state aid to Nissan worth up to £80m had the carmaker gone ahead with plans to manufacture a new model X-Trail in Sunderland after Brexit. Yet, at the time the commitments were first made, Downing Street had said “there was no special deal for Nissan” and Clark refused six times to answer a question about what was on offer when interviewed on the BBC. Dan Sabbagh, Jasper Jolly, The Guardian.
  • Tax relief and incentives for business. There is a highly favourable environment for businesses and those who invest in them. In addition to the growing diversity of sources of finance, such as crowdfunding and peer-to-peer lending, there are schemes and incentives devised to help companies of all sizes secure funding. If your business meets certain criteria, it may also qualify for help with business rates or tax relief for research and development. BEIS, Business is Great. Accessed Apr.27.2018. + Environmental taxes, reliefs and schemes for businesses
  • Sept.17.2017: THE COSTS OF JOBS: Are job subsidies a success? Secrecy makes it hard to know. The data proved elusive. It took 10 months to gather information from state and local govt agencies, including the number of jobs each company created and the value of incentives or tax breaks each company received. That lack of accountability means taxpayers and leaders can't effectively decide whether individual subsidy deals are a good investment or if the money would be better spent on education, infrastructure or another jobs program. After reviewing hundreds of pages of records, the findings show... Greg LeRoy of Good Jobs First said "Political value is right here, right now. Why would I spend time on tracking outcomes?" In the deals known as PILOTs, or payments in lieu of taxes, companies agree to create a certain number of jobs or invest capital in a building in exchange for a waiver of most or all property taxes. ... Linkback: Google. The Times Free Press. See also this article re Amazon.
  • Jul.07.2015: The British Corporate Welfare State: Public Policies for Private Businesses. It is widely assumed that public services are organized and delivered for the sole benefit of citizens. The reality, however, is very different. The more we consider the role and function of different government departments and programmes, the clearer it becomes that they are also designed to bring direct and indirect benefits to private businesses. Corporate Welfare Watch.

Articles with Mixed Subsidy Topics

  • Nov.03.2017: Amazon wants goodies and tax breaks to move its HQ to your city. Say no thanks. The scramble to please Amazon marks the return of a very old dilemma that American cities faced with the rise of capitalism in the 19th century: roll out the red carpet to investors, with tax breaks and other subsidies, or lose development funds to more pliant competitors. Like today, urban boosters in the 19th century dazzled ordinary Americans with grand visions of economic growth. In the fast-paced age of the railroad and the telegraph, they explained, corporate capital had become more mobile than ever before and much better able to choose between contending sites for investment. Cities that garnered favor with investors would win a prosperous future, securing an abundance of financial resources, thriving industries, and thousands of high-paying jobs. The policy prescriptions for cities were clear: eliminate corporate taxes, provide public subsidies, and avoid heavy-handed govt regulation. Corporate giveaways not only undermined political sovereignty, these lawmakers explained, but also surrendered precious tax revenues and regulatory authority. These concessions weakened a city’s ability to invest in neighborhood infrastructure, social services, and public education. Tax breaks and govt subsidies have of late become synonymous with development strategy – something Amazon is now skillfully taking advantage of. An influx of unregulated private investment, however, has never in itself been enough to nurture urban prosperity and well-being. Noam Maggor, The Guardian.
  • Jan.11.2016: Cost of UK tax breaks rises to £117bn. The cost of some UK tax breaks has risen as much as 13% during the past four years to £117bn, a sum larger than the budget of any govt department. The rising cost of such “tax expenditures”, published by HMRC, is likely to fuel calls for more scrutiny of reliefs. The biggest single cause of the increase was the cost of exempting main residences from capital gains tax, which rose by £8bn to £18bn between 2011/2–2015/16. VAT relief on housebuilding increased from £7.5bn to £11.4bn. MPs have been calling for a review of tax breaks, and last month Labour launched its own investigation. Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, Economia.
  • Jul.07.2015: The £93bn handshake: businesses pocket huge subsidies and tax breaks. Taxpayers are handing businesses £93bn a year – a transfer of more than £3,500 from each household in the UK. George Osborne plans to cut £12bn more from the social welfare bill, but that is less than the £14.5bn given to companies in direct subsidies and grants alone. (pics). Offering sweeteners is usually justified by the prospect of extra taxes flowing in, not only in corporation taxation, but also employers’ national insurance. plus jobs. long list of diff. types of subsidies etc. Aditya Chakrabortty, The Guardian. + Corporate Welfare Watch.

Healthcare

  • Apr.28.2018: Grandmother takes to the streets to protest the US firm that is shutting her GP surgery after 63 years. ...To add to the insult, patients found the surgery is run by a firm that is part owned by an American health insurance company based 4,000 miles away in St Louis, Missouri. Robert Halfon, Conservative MP for Harlow, said the lack of public consultation left no time to consider viable alternatives to closure. He also questioned why an alternative company was not found to run it after the current firm bowed out of its contract. He said govt funding to the West Essex Clinical Commissioning Group, which awards contracts to run surgeries, has increased every year – and recorded a surplus of £7.3m in 2016/17. 'I am appalled by the way that this has been handled, I wasn't even told as a local MP,' he said. Mr Halfon has taken his complaint to NHS minister Steve Brine, as CCGs have a legal duty to consider the impact a closure will have on the local community. Kate Pickles, The Mail Online.

Private Schools

  • Feb.05.2019: Critics take aim at subsidies given to private schools. Under a Department for Education scheme, approved in 2014, Thomas’s in Kensington was given £4,000 a year to pay for one of its teachers to teach Latin to pupils from two state primary schools once a week. Thomas’s was one of 15 independent schools, taking part in a programme to “raise the standard of teaching and learning in key subject areas in state schools”. It's rather odd that private schools receive state handouts, especially as they already benefit from very generous tax savings worth up to £2.5bn a year. As charities, participating schools are under a legal duty to make a contribution to the community. Yet the state, through a number of govt departments, pays private schools more than £200m a year. The Ministry of Defence spent £80m a year so that the children of senior military officers could attend elite public schools. The Foreign Office runs a similar scheme for diplomats. The govt’s music and dance scheme is an annual fund established to help “ensure that talented children and young people from disadvantaged backgrounds and families with limited financial means” have the opportunity to attend one of eight independent music or dance schools - but families earning up to £190,000 a year are receiving awards. Robert Verkaik, The Guardian.

Farming

  • Oct.16.2018: UK farm funding remit launched before EU subsidies are cut. New anel may allocate funding based on more varied factors than EU CAP. Farming conditions across the UK’s regions are to be assessed for the first time with a view to allocating financial assistance after EU subsidies are withdrawn, the govt has said. Michael Gove said “We are committed to making sure that future funding is fairly allocated and are confirming that the govt won’t simply apply the Barnett formula to Defra’s funding beyond this parliament." From 2021-2027 a new system of “environmental land management contracts” will be phased in, under which ministers have pledged that farmers will be rewarded for protecting and improving public goods, some of which are outlined in the agriculture bill now going through parliament. These may include payments for preserving waterways, natural landscapes and wildlife. However, the amount of subsidy to be made available under the new system has not been set. Fiona Harvey, The Guardian.

EU Subsidies

  • Mar.01.2018: Europe’s state aid rules are no barrier to UK's socialists or capitalists. Michael Gove and Jeremy Corbyn have railed against EU restrictions on state aid, which in effect prevent politicians from giving free money to companies they like. Both are wrong. Govts in Europe can own companies, so long as they are willing to compete with the private sector. With state-owned SNCF operating the French railways, state-owned EDF electrifying French cables and state-owned La Poste delivering French mail, President Macron would be in for a nasty surprise if it turned out that this was all, in fact, illegal. Mr Corbyn's nationalisation programme is safe, for better or worse. The point is to stop the state from giving unfair advantages — whether in the form of cash transfers, tax breaks, a bit of money for research and training — to certain players. About 95% of state aid automatically falls under official exemptions, meaning the European Commission does not even need to get involved. The Times, Raphael Hogarth
  • Jan.04.2018: 'UNJUST' EU farm subsidies to be replaced: Gove promises bumper Brexit grants. Michael Gove has promised to replace EU farming subsidies after Brexit with a new system estimated to be worth around £10bn, in a speech in which he branded the bloc’s scheme “unjust”. He has revealed he will scrap the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in favour of grants for farmers who enhance the environment. The current “basic payments” of money per acre under CAP will continue until 2024. He said: “I want to develop a new method of providing financial support for farmers which moves away from subsidies for inefficiency to public money for public goods". Government chiefs have yet to decide on the cap but it is likely to be implemented on a sliding scale. Currently 3,500 farmers receive more than £100,000 each annually. There are 39 recipients of £1million or over. Green Party MEP Molly Scott Cato said; “Gove must call time on the UK’s largest land owners who are using agricultural land to hide and shelter their wealth. Agricultural land offers generous tax breaks as it is exempt from inheritance tax after two years if it is actively farmed. The fact that the sale of a farming asset can be rolled over into a new business or acquisition offers further tax relief". Chloe Kerr, The Express.
  • Aug.17.2016: UK to match EU subsidies if they're in 'national interest'. Govt will take over funding if test proves it is of benefit to the nation, says David Gauke. The Week,
  • 2017: EU Pubic Procurement Rules (2017) x International Comparative Legal Guides,
  • 15. Public Procurement and State Aid
    • 15.1 The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) includes specific provisions (Articles 107–109) restricting the ability of Member States to grant aid (of whatever form) which "distorts or threatens to distort competition by favouring certain undertakings or the production of certain goods ... insofar as it affects trade between Member States". Broadly, the provisions are intended to stop Member States from unfairly supporting their own companies to the detriment of competing companies from other Member States.
    • 15.2 In the context of public procurement, aid can arise where the terms of a contract for works, services or supplies are not aligned with normal market-based commercial terms, as to price or other matters, or where the contract does not reflect a genuine need. The advantage must come directly or indirectly from the resources of the State, and the measure providing for this must be imputable to the State.
    • 15.3 The basic test is whether the purchaser acted as a "market purchaser" would have done. If it did, aid is not involved. If it did not, aid is involved – the aid being the difference between the actual value of the contract and the value of a contract that a market purchaser would have entered into (with the difference being repayable). If the purchaser has run an open, transparent and non-discriminatory procurement procedure (for example, one in accordance with the public procurement rules) and the contract price is established through that procedure, then there is generally accepted to be a presumption that State aid is not involved.
    • 15.4 If the purchaser has properly used the open procedure, the contract should be at market value and not involve aid. The position is less clear for cases in which the restricted, negotiated or competitive dialogue procedures are used. However, the Commission has been flexible and has generally not sought to challenge public bodies in relation to purchase contracts. In several cases, it has accepted that a negotiated procedure used in PPP transactions has delivered a market result. The Commission explained the above principles in a November 2007 document titled "Frequently Asked Questions Concerning the Application of Public Procurement Rules to Social Services of General Interest" [see Endnote 25] as follows: "...a tender procedure guaranteeing full competition can be taken as an important indicator that the [contract is at] market price and that there is no State aid. Complying with procurement rules will in these cases therefore also help in ensuring respect of the State aid provisions".

Agriculture / Farming / CAP

2015.07.27: The Landed Gentry ‘Jackals’ Claiming Billions in Farm Subsidies (Lord Ridley, Sir Richard Sutton, family of Iain Duncan Smith, Liz Truss Environment Secretary), DeSmogUK, Brendan Montague

  • Latest=2013: EU Farm subsidies for United Kingdom, all years, FarmSubsidy.OpenSpending.org
  • UK CAP Payments website. Four Paying Agencies: the Rural Payments Agency (RPA), the Scottish Govt Rural Payments & Inspections Directorate (SGRPID), the Welsh Govt (WG) and the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) in Northern Ireland. http://www.cap-payments.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx
  • 2016.06.26: Farmers' leader seeks govt subsidy 'equal to support given by European Union'. Farmers are demanding that the victorious Leave campaign honours its promise to provide them with financial support to replace the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy, which currently provides 55% of their income, Telegraph, Emily Gosden
  • 2013.07.01: Farming subsidies: this is the most blatant transfer of cash to the rich. As the British govt cut benefits for the poor at home, in Europe it fought to keep millions in subsidies for wealthy farmers, Guardian, George Monbiot
  • 2012.03.05: Rich landowners paid millions in farming subsidies. Panorama requested details of the number of landowners claiming a slice of the £3.5bn subsidy in the UK. ...the system is flawed because it rewards large landowners based on the number of hectares they own, not on financial need, BBC News

Arms

Environment

  • Dec.18.2018: Britain in electric slow lane after grant cut. Electric cars are likely to cost more in the UK than other European countries after a cut in government subsidies for green vehicles. Govt decision to cut the grant for buying electric cars. From Nov, the grant for pure electric cars dropped from £4,500 to £3,500. Hybrids, which run on a mix of petrol or diesel and electric batteries, no longer qualify for the car grant. The govt is committed to banning the sale of new petrol and diesel models by 2040 to make the switch to electric or hydrogen vehicles. A Department for Transport spokesman said "Word Salad". Graeme Paton, The Times.

Energy

  • Energy subsidiesWikipedia-W.svg
  • UK Govt Subsidies (ECA and CCL). The Enhanced Capital Allowance (ECA) Scheme provides up-front tax relief for businesses paying corporation / income tax that invest in energy-saving equipment. The Climate Change Levy (CCL) is a tax on the use of energy in industry, commerce and the public sector, with offsetting cuts in employers’ National Insurance Contributions and additional support for energy efficiency schemes and renewable sources of energy. Hydrovane.co.uk
  • 2013.04.24: New Inquiry Launched on Energy Subsidies in the UK. (What should constitute ‘subsidy’, extent of energy subsidies in the UK for nuclear energy, fossil fuel energy and renewables, + what the govt should be doing to identify and eliminate those subsidies which are "harmful" (perverse). Parliament.uk

Constraint Payments

  • Oct.28.2018: Too much wind shocks electric bill payers. 60+ wind farms, mostly in Scotland, were compensated £4.8m after electricity supply outstripped demand on Oct.08. REF's analysis entirely fails to address massive subsidies to the coal and gas industry. Mark Macaskill, The Times.
  • Apr.03.2014: Gas company special payments dwarf constraint payments to windfarms. National Grid made special payments of £300m over the last 12 months to big energy companies – sometimes for switching off their power stations in an attempt to "balance" the system. The huge payout dwarfs the £37m paid to windfarms to remain offline over the same period to the end of February – a figure used by critics to question the advisability of supporting renewable energy. REF said they were "relaxed" about gas companies, but wind constraint payments were "rocketing up" and were double the cost of subsidies paid when the turbines operated. The grid's official figures for Feb. indicate that constraint payments were below £2m for wind but were ~£20m to gas operators. Terry Macalister, The Guardian.

Renewables

  • Jul.22.2015: DECC: Amber Rudd reduces subsidies for renewable energy. The govt has unveiled a package of measures to reduce subsidies to renewable energy in what it says is an effort to keep down household bills. The announcement was widely expected, and comes off the back of recent projections from the Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR) that subsidies for renewable energy will exceed the levels expected at the point when the spending cap, known as the Levy Control Framework (LCF), was established. Carbon Brief looks at the reforms and collects reactions... Ed Davey, the former secretary of state for Energy and Climate Change, who says the changes are “based on ideology, not on evidence”. Good overview of how subsidies are raised. Sophie Yeo, Carbon Brief.
  • 2011: Government funding for developing renewable energy technologies, National Audit Office

Fossil Fuels

  • Jan.25.2019: Britain is doing socialism for the rich again – this time for oil and gas. British people are coughing up £24bn to help big oil, according to the National Audit Office. It’s yet another example of the illusion that is modern capitalism. It is also a damning indictment that we are splashing out on tax breaks for big oil rather than properly investing in tackling the existential crisis of climate change, and in doing so, creating vast numbers of jobs in renewable energy as Germany has done. Britain’s private sector is utterly dependent on state largesse to make money. Rail companies receive more subsidies than they did when the industry was publicly owned. According to the National Audit Office in 2016, the Treasury spends about £225bn – or about £3 in every £10 of government money – on private or voluntary providers. The list goes on. Modern capitalism is based on a myth: that thriving private entrepreneurs generate wealth through their own hard work, innovation and get-up-and-go. In fact, the state (that's you and me) subsidises the entire system, nationalising the risks but privatising the profits, while allowing its beneficiaries – our shameless, profit-obsessed elite – power without accountability. Owen Jones, The Guardian.
  • Jan.23.2-19: UK has biggest fossil fuel subsidies in the EU, finds commission. The European Commission found €12bn (£10.5bn) per year in support for fossil fuels in the UK, significantly more than the €8.3bn spent on renewable energy. Subsidies for coal, oil and gas are not falling despite EU pledges to tackle climate change. Along with the UK, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and Ireland all gave more to fossil fuels. A significant part of the UK fossil fuel subsidies identified by the commission is the 5% rate of VAT on domestic gas and electricity, cut from the standard 20%. The UK govt denied this was a subsidy under its own definition. The Overseas Development Institute said "They are lying. They are playing games and continuing to prop up a centuries old energy system.” Damian Carrington, The Guardian.
  • Aug.07.2017: Fossil fuel subsidies are a staggering $5tn per year; 5.8% of global GDP in 2011, rising to 6.5% in 2013. Fossil fuels have two major problems that paint a dim picture for their future energy dominance. These problems are inter-related but still should be discussed separately. First, they cause climate change. Second, fossil fuels are expensive. Much of their costs are hidden, however, as subsidies. If people knew how large their subsidies were, there would be a backlash against them from so-called financial conservatives. A study was just published in the journal World Development that quantifies the amount of subsidies directed toward fossil fuels globally, and the results are shocking. The authors work at the IMF and are well-skilled to quantify the subsidies discussed in the paper. The subsidies were $4.9 tn in 2013 and they rose to $5.3 tn just two years later. According to the authors, these subsidies are important because first, they promote fossil fuel use which damages the environment. Second, these are fiscally costly. Third, the subsidies discourage investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy that compete with the subsidized fossil fuels. Finally, subsidies are very inefficient means to support low-income households. John Abraham, The Guardian.
  • Apr.19.2017: Fossil fuel firms' multi-billion-pound state subsidies revealed in accidentally leaked secret files. Taxpayer support for export deals benefits coal, oil and gas firm massively but renewables hardly get any. Some £6.9bn in support was provided to oil, gas and coal companies under an export scheme since 2000, according to an analysis of the files by Greenpeace and Private Eye. The funding was administered by UK Export Finance. Some of the projects were considered "commercially sensitive", so were not included in UKEF's annual report, raising questions about scrutiny of its decisions by MPs and the public. Dr Nina Skorupska, chief executive of the Renewable Energy Association, said the level of financial support for fossil fuels was at odds with the Paris Agreement on climate change, which she said should have “triggered a sea-change in how govt engages with industry and the wider world”. Ian Johnston, The Independent.
  • Feb.28.2017: Mapped: How a Big Oil Lobbying Network Makes Billions from Taxpayers as North Sea Wells Run Dry. Big Oil companies have made £billions from exploiting the North Sea’s oil and gas resources. But as it gets harder to squeeze a profit out of the drying fields, they are increasingly asking the taxpayer to fund their polluting activities, all while making £billions for their shareholders. Since 2015, the Treasury has given the industry tax breaks worth £2.3bn. This is despite BP, Shell and Total making after tax profits of $10bn in 2016 alone. A new report from thinktank InfluenceMap reveals how a network of Big Oil companies, lobbyists and major accounting firms have used the govt’s pledge to “maximise economic recovery” of North Sea resources and their direct links to government to secure £multi-billion handouts that could last for decades. The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) estimated that the govt gives a £6bn per year in subsidies to the Fossil Fuel sector, with a direct subsidy of £750m to North Sea companies. Companies claim that without the government’s help, they would have to pack up and leave, taking valuable jobs and tax contributions with them. Professional lobbyists and accounting firms help spread the message. Each of the players has a direct line to government through quarterly meetings of the Treasury-run Oil and Gas Industry Direct Tax Forum. Industry group Oil & Gas UK (OGUK) has met with ministers at least 49 times in the last 3 years, and spends around £15m on lobbying each year. OGUK has taken credit for some tax breaks announced in George Osborne’s Mar.2015 budget. The UK Oil Industry Taxation Committee (UKOITC) has also called for tax breaks for the industry, and holds a joint annual conference with the Treasury. The trade associations’ lobbying activities are supported by the activities of the Big Four accounting firms (Deloitte, EY, KPMG, and PwC), all of which have professional ties to the Big Oil companies. All of 4 firms are on record supporting North Sea oil and gas tax breaks. All 4firms are members of OGUK and UKOITC. All of the Big Oil and Big Four companies regularly attend the quarterly Oil and Gas Industry Direct Tax Forum meetings. Mat Hope, DeSmog UK. See North Sea Oil and Gas Taxation and Lobbying, Mar.2017
  • Mar.2016: Budget 2016: Exposing North Sea oil myths. In the 2015 Budget, Chancellor George Osborne awarded a further £1.3bn in subsidies to the oil industry. The oil and gas industry is now lobbying hard for more, demanding “permanent tax breaks”. Tax cuts do not lead to higher unemployment; but the slashing of support to solar power in 2015 caused the loss of ~18,700 jobs (govt figures). The amounts of money are almost identical: in 2015 the govt gave £1.3bn over 5 years to the oil industry, and took away payments (by consumers) to the solar industry of £1.3bn over 6 years. Greg Muttit, Oil Change International. See also North Sea production recovery fuels fears of tax blow in Budget (FT)
  • Nov.12.2015: UK's £10bn a year fossil fuel subsidies - and rising. In 2009, G20 nations pledged to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies. But they are still supporting them with $452bn pa. Worst offenders: the UK, the only G7 country that's ramping up its fossil fuel spending; and Turkey, host of tomorrow's G20 summit, which plans to double its CO2 emissions with a huge new fleet of coal power plants. The Ecologist.
  • Mar.18.2015: Fossil fuels are way more expensive than you think. A new paper published in Climatic Change estimates that when we account for the pollution costs associated with our energy sources, gasoline costs an extra $3.80 per gallon, diesel an additional $4.80 per gallon, coal a further 24 cents per kilowatt-hour, and natural gas another 11 cents per kilowatt-hour that we don’t see in our fuel or energy bills. Dana Nuccitelli, The Guardian.

Solar

  • Mar.14.2017: Germany’s High-Priced Energy Revolution. Germany has launched a renewable-energy revolution - the Energiewende - and it’s paying a fortune to achieve it. It has made huge but costly strides toward renewables. Can any other nation afford to follow it? At the center of the transformation has been a slate of renewable-energy subsidies that have dramatically scaled up once-niche solar and wind technologies and in the process have slashed their cost, making them competitive in some cases with fossil fuels. Germany’s solar-subsidy scheme pays a set price for every kilowatt-hour of electricity produced with solar panels and sells into the grid. It guarantees that pricefor 20 years. A raft of second-mover countries, from the U.S. to China to India, are now installing solar and wind power on a huge scale. If renewable energy ends up significantly helping curb climate change, then history may judge the Energiewende as a remarkable example of global leadership. Jeffrey Ball, Fortune.

Housing

Railways

  • 2017.11.06: How Arriva wanted to develop Wales' railways (but were stopped by the UK Govt). Complaints grow about overcrowding on Arriva Trains Wales but back in 2002 the firm proposed new trains and other improvements which were rejected by the UK govt, Wales Online, Rhodri Clark
  • 2013.01.22: Why are rail subsidies so high? Institute of Economic Affairs, Richard Wellings
  • 2013.01.04: Why has the railway subsidy increased? (interesting report) Parliament.uk


Associated Organisations